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Kristina M. Meissen Advisor: Barbara Osborne, Esq. Committee Member: Edgar Shields, Phd Committee Member: Shelley Johnson, MA Ex-Officio Committee Member:

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Presentation on theme: "Kristina M. Meissen Advisor: Barbara Osborne, Esq. Committee Member: Edgar Shields, Phd Committee Member: Shelley Johnson, MA Ex-Officio Committee Member:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kristina M. Meissen Advisor: Barbara Osborne, Esq. Committee Member: Edgar Shields, Phd Committee Member: Shelley Johnson, MA Ex-Officio Committee Member: Deborah Stroman, Phd A Critical Analysis of the Carolina Leadership Academy’s CREED Program at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

2 INTRODUCTION James McGregor Burns Quotes:  “Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth” (Janssen, 2004). INTRODUCTION

3 Leadership Theory in Higher Education  Leadership is noted by scholars as…..  A constant learning process  “Individuals must evolve and practice a specific skill set to develop true leadership ability” (Kouzes & Posner, 2002)

4 INTRODUCTION Leadership Theory in Collegiate Athletics  Student-athletes often know how to recognize leadership, but struggle to master techniques to best exemplify leadership characteristics (Janssen, 2004).

5 INTRODUCTION Collegiate Athletics and Leadership Theory  2003 Jeff Janssen partnered with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) Athletics Department  National leader in leadership curriculum within collegiate athletics  GOAL: To create a learning environment fostering leadership within the unique special population of student-athletes.

6 INTRODUCTION Carolina Leadership Academy (CLA) Three tiered leadership curriculum for S-As  CREED (Mandatory Freshmen)  Rising Stars (Sophomores)  Veteran Leaders (Juniors and Seniors) Supported by monthly leadership training for  Head coaches  Assistant coaches  Administrators Veteran Leaders Rising Stars CREED Head Coaches Assistant Coaches Administrators

7 INTRODUCTION Carolina CREED Program Objectives Introduce and teach freshmen:  the importance of personal leadership  methods to ease the transition to college  the culture and expectations of being a Carolina student- athlete  responsibility, accountability, making good choices  drug and alcohol education  ethics and character building

8 Highlights of CLA CREED Plaques

9 INTRODUCTION Carolina CREED Program Components  Monthly workshops  Keynote speakers  Small group discussion groups  CREED Mentor Program  Upper-class student-athletes serve as peer mentors and discussion leaders  Reinforcement of program curriculum in coaches’ training

10 INTRODUCTION Need for Study  Lack of current research  Need for continual program evaluation to meet changing needs  Continuing Problem: Gender Differences in Participation and Motivation  “Male student-athlete motivation to complete this program and invest time in higher levels of the Carolina Leadership Academy is consistently lower than that of female student-athlete peers” ( Lane, Interview, 2008).

11 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE To determine if there is a significant relationship between student-athlete gender and the perceived effectiveness of the CREED program to: (1) develop self leadership skills (2) ease the transition process from high school to being a collegiate student-athlete (3) enable freshmen student-athletes to establish social networks

12 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE To determine if there is a significant relationship between student-athlete gender and the perceived effectiveness of the CREED program to: (4) motivate freshmen student-athletes to become involved in the Rising Stars program (5) motivate freshmen student-athletes to become leaders in organizations outside of athletics (6) enable freshmen student-athletes to learn about and understand the “Carolina Culture”

13 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE Research Objectives To provide the Division of Student-Athlete Development with valuable feedback To make recommendations for future curriculum improvement To understand gender differences in student-athlete leadership development during the first year experience

14 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1 Is there a relationship between gender and the following variables for the purpose of developing self leadership skills?  a) freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of the individual, personal interaction with their CREED Mentor  b) freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of CREED small group circle sessions, held monthly, led by team mentors  c) freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of the cumulative effect of the six large group CREED workshops held monthly

15 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1 Is there a relationship between gender and the following variables for the purpose of developing self leadership skills?  d) freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of the cumulative effect of the mandatory guest speakers that were part of the CREED program  e) freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of the encouragement from the head coach to complete the CREED program  f) freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of the continuing, year long partnership between him/her and head coach as part of the CREED program

16 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 2 Is there a relationship between the gender of the freshmen student-athlete and their perceived effectiveness of the CREED program to ________________________?  a) ease the transition from high school to being a collegiate student- athlete  b) establish social networks  c) motivate graduates to become a Rising Star  d) motivate him/her to become a CREED Mentor  e) motivate him/her to seek leadership opportunities in organizations outside of athletics  f) enable him/her to learn about and understand the “Carolina Culture”

17 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Unique Freshmen Student-Athlete Experience Take Away Message  “Research emphasizes the importance of faculty and administrators to dedicate resources and seize each opportunity to show student-athletes that the university supports and cares about their holistic well being from not only an athletic position, but also from a cognitive and psychosocial development standpoint from the freshmen year forward ” (Howard- Hamilton & Sina, 2001 ).

18 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Gender Differences in Leadership Development Transformational Leadership vs. Transactional  Transformational leadership  leader who is engaged with a follower throughout the task process.  motivated to achieve a task or goal with a common purpose  female leadership stereotype  “Individuals with this dominant leadership style promote collective development and vision as leaders treat followers as equals” (Burns, 1978).

19 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Gender Differences in Leadership Development Transformational Leadership vs. Transactional  Transactional leadership  leader who emphasizes and focuses upon current needs  emphasis is placed more upon task completion in the short term  male leadership stereotype  Burns (1978) defines this as “a process of exchanges or bargains between leader and follower centered upon current goals in which no long time purpose holds the leaders and followers together.”

20 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Gender Differences in Leadership Development Take Away Message:  By understanding different leadership types and current gender stereotypes, program directors and administrators can implement curriculum which will best reach a diverse and varied student- athlete audience.

21 METHODOLOGY Development of Survey Instrument  A survey was created using a 5-point Likert scale for perceived effectiveness.  A pilot study utilized feedback of student-athletes who had previously completed the CREED program  Validity  The pilot survey and feedback from experts in the field determined the survey appeared to measure what it was designed to measure; freshmen student-athletes perceived effectiveness of the CREED program.

22 METHODOLOGY Survey instrument 3 main sections  Section 1-Demographic information of the student-athlete  Gender  Sport  Section 2-CREED Program Curriculum  Questions1-6 effectiveness of curriculum components  Questions 7-12 effectiveness of the CREED program to meet six stated objectives

23 METHODOLOGY  Section 2- Likert Scale Response section  Measured freshmen student-athletes’ perceived effectiveness of the CREED program.  (1) ineffective  (2) slightly effective  (3) effective  (4) highly effective  (5) extremely effective.  Section 3 – Open-Ended Questions  most and least effective portions of the CREED program  recommendations for additions/deletions

24 METHODOLOGY Selection of Survey Participants  All survey participants were required to:  (1) be enrolled as a freshmen at the University of North Carolina  (2) be a member of a UNC Varsity athletic team roster during the academic year  Survey participants who did not complete the program or were dropped from the roster were not included

25 METHODOLOGY Survey Distribution and Collection Procedures  Survey electronically transmitted via Survey Monkey to 211 freshmen student-athletes  Open for 3 weeks  4 reminders  Master list  Generated by the UNC Athletic Department’s Division of Academic Support Services.  Data was collected through the Survey Monkey Tool  transferred to SPSS statistical package for evaluation.

26 METHODOLOGY Survey (DATA) Analysis  Descriptive statistics were compiled for all demographic data.  Chi-square analysis was run to see if a relationship existed between gender and perceived effectiveness of the program curriculum components.  observed frequencies vs. expected frequencies  Qualitative analysis was used for open-ended question.  Responses were tabulated, summarized and interpreted appropriately depending on trends seen in the data set.

27 RESULTS Descriptive Statistics: Demographics  Of the 28 Varsity sports at UNC…  25 teams had at least one respondent  (89.29% return ratio from UNC Varsity teams)  No response from  women’s basketball  men’s soccer  men’s tennis

28 RESULTS Figure 1: Number of Survey Respondents by Sport

29 RESULTS The initial population= 211 student-athletes 68/211 responses=32.23% Population by gender : -114 females (54.03%) - 97 males (45.97%) Sample by gender: -43 females (63.2%) -25 males (36.8%) Figure 2: Percent of Survey Respondents by Gender

30 RESULTS QuestionX2 valuedfP value < Significant Relationship Between Gender and Response Small Group Work Cum. Effect of Workshops

31 RESULTS Gender * rc_Response Crosstabulation rc_Response Total 234 Gender1=FemaleCount Expected Count % within Gender20.9%51.2%27.9%100.0% Adjusted Residual =MaleCount Expected Count % within Gender68.0%16.0% 100.0% Adjusted Residual TotalCount Expected Count % within Gender38.2% 23.5%100.0% Question #3 - How effective was the cumulative effect of the six monthly CREED workshops with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? Significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = , P <.0005) Table 3: Survey Question 3 Gender and Response Chi square Analysis

32 RESULTS Question #3 - How effective was the cumulative effect of the six monthly CREED workshops with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? Significant relationship between gender and response Figure 7: Survey Question 3 Percent of Reponses by Gender Data Trends Males/Females differ in their view of this component Most male responses show cumulative effect of CREED workshops = ineffective/slightly effective Most female responses show cumulative effect of CREED workshops = effective or better

33 RESULTS Gender * rc_Response Crosstabulation rc_Response Total 234 Gender1=FemaleCount Expected Count % within Gender37.2%41.9%20.9%100.0% Adjusted Residual =MaleCount Expected Count % within Gender64.0%16.0%20.0%100.0% Adjusted Residual TotalCount Expected Count % within Gender47.1%32.4%20.6%100.0% Question #2 - How effective were the small group circle sessions, held monthly, with your CREED mentor with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 5.686, P =.058) Larger response could make this significant at.05 level Table 2: Survey Question 2 Gender and Response Chi -square Analysis

34 RESULTS Question #2 - How effective were the small group circle sessions, held monthly, with your CREED mentor with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? (Close to significant relationship between gender and response) Figure 6: Survey Question 2 Percent of Reponses by Gender Data Trends Males/Females differ in their view of this component Most male responses show small group work = ineffective/slightly effective Most female responses show small group work = effective

35 RESULTS Data Trends Opposite trends between male/female responses Majority of female responses show encouragement from head coach= highly/extremely effective Majority of male responses show encouragement from head coach= ineffective/slightly effective Question #5- How effective was the encouragement from your head coach to complete the CREED program with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 2.158, P =.340) Figure 9: Survey Question 5 Percent of Reponses by Gender

36 RESULTS Question #13 - With regard to developing YOUR personal self leadership skills, what part of the CREED program was most effective? Females (26/43 respondents 60.47%) Guest speakers (50%) Group work and activities (26.92%) Meeting new people (11.54%) Program was not effective in any regard (7.69%) Learning about oneself (3.85%) Males (16/25 respondents 64%) Group work and activities (50%) Guest speakers (31.25%) Working with mentors (6.25%) Allowing the individual to become associated with the Athletic Department (6.25%) Program not effective in any regard (6.25%)

37 RESULTS Question #14 - With regard to developing YOUR personal self leadership skills, what part of the CREED program was least effective? Females (27/43 respondents 62.79%) Ineffective use of group time (37.04%) Homework, book work (18.52%) Lack of mentor leadership (14.81 ) Guest speakers too long or off topic (11.11%) No specific part of the program was ineffective (7.41%) Mandatory nature of the program (7.41%) Required time commitment (3.71%) Males (12/25 respondents 48%) Mandatory nature of the program (25%) Inability to relate to guest speakers (16.67%) Power point presentations (16.67%) Outside projects/homework (16.67%) Program as a whole was least effective and should be eliminated (16.67%) Book work and reading (8.33%)

38 RESULTS Question #15 For the purposes of effective development of self leadership skills, is there anything missing from the CREED program curriculum? What, if anything, would you recommend adding to the program? Females (23/43 respondents 53.49%) More interaction and activities (47.83%) The program was effective and nothing needs to be added (26.90%) More CREED mentor leadership (8.70%) Topics and discussion covering sport culture (4.35%) Community service opportunities (4.35%) Food (4.35%) More diverse guest speakers (4.35%) Males (10/25 respondents 40%) The need for more social interaction (30%) The program was effective and nothing needs to be added (30%) The need for more activities (20%) The need for more CREED mentor leadership (20%)

39 RESULTS Question #16- Effective development of self leadership skills for each student-athlete is the goal of the CREED program. Is there any part of the CREED program that is not effective in accomplishing this goal? What, if anything, would you recommend be eliminated from the program? Females (15/43 respondents 34.88%) Nothing should be eliminated (66.67%) Eliminate the mentor program unless changes are made (13.33%) Eliminate homework assignments (6.67%) Eliminate the drum circle (6.67%) Eliminate speakers that are hard to relate to (6.67%) Males (7/25 respondents 28%) Nothing should be eliminated (42.86%) Eliminating speakers that were hard to relate to (28.57%) Eliminate the mentor program unless changes are made (28.57%)

40 DISCUSSION Summary-Quantitative Analysis  Quantitative Analysis  one statistically significant relationship between gender and response  Component: Perceived effectiveness of six CREED workshops collectively  (X 2 (2) = , P <.0005)  Research Question 2  Looked at as though it were a significant find.  Component: Perceived effectiveness of small group work  (X 2 (2) = 5.686, P =.058)  Quantitative Analysis  11 non-significant relationships between gender and response.

41 DISCUSSION Summary-Qualitative Analysis  Two most effective components of the program to develop self leadership skills:  1) Group work and activities fostering team motivation, communication and interaction  2) Guest speakers  Females  Surface themes showing they favored more interactive (transformational) leadership in group work  Males  Tended to view self-directed methods of learning more effective (transactional)  Majority of both males and females  Felt nothing should be eliminated from the current program,  Changes and improvements should be made

42 DISCUSSION Recommendations for the CREED Program  Continue to invest time in securing guest speakers  Invest more resources in the CREED mentor program  Focus on leadership training with older student-athlete CREED mentors to foster increased group cohesion through mentor leadership  Increasing time commitment for mentor training  Stricter selection process of mentors

43 DISCUSSION Recommendations for Future Study  Disperse the survey in person during the final CREED meeting of the spring semester  Expand this study to include additional data collection of personal attributes such as  race, ethnicity, team vs. individual sport and prior leadership experience s  Additional longitudinal studies  pre, post and retrospective survey within a given CREED program class.  Address student-athletes’ perceived leadership style  Similar to those Mayer and Burns found in the work force.

44 QUESTIONS Thank you & GO Tar Heels!

45 CONTACT INFORMATION KRISTINA MEISSEN Graduate Intern Office of Student-Athlete Development UNC Department of Athletics

46 RESULTS Question # 1 - How effective was the individual, personal interaction you had with your CREED mentor with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 2.527, P =.283) Figure 5: Survey Question 1 Percent of Reponses by Gender Data Trends Males/female responses move in similar pattern Most males/females view personal interaction with CREED mentor as ineffective/slightly effective

47 RESULTS Question #4- How effective was the cumulative effect of the mandatory guest speaker sessions that were part of the CREED program with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = , P =.180) Figure 8: Survey Question 4 Percent of Reponses by Gender Data Trends Males/female responses move in similar pattern Majority of both males/females view cumulative effect of guest speakers as highly/extremely effective

48 RESULTS Data Trends Similar trends in responses for males/females Majority y of male and female responses show the yearlong partnership between SA and coach=ineffective/slightly effective Question #6- How effective was the continuing year-long partnership between you and your head coach as part of the CREED program with regard to YOUR development of self leadership skills? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 1.590, P =.451) Figure 10: Survey Question 6 Percent of Reponses by Gender

49 RESULTS Data Trends Similar pattern between male and female responses Majority of both male/female responses show CREED program = ineffective/slightly effective to easing the transition Of the remaining respondents-a greater majority of women saw this component as highly/extremely effective Question #7- How effective was the CREED program with regard to easing the transition from high school to being a collegiate student-athlete? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 1.590, P =.451) Figure 11: Survey Question 7 Percent of Reponses by Gender

50 RESULTS Data Trends Majority of males and females responded the CREED program is ineffective/slightly effective to establishing social networks Of the remaining respondents, a greater percentage of females than males saw this component as effective or better Question #8- How effective was the CREED program with regard to establishing social networks? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 1.557, P =.459) Figure 12: Survey Question 8 Percent of Reponses by Gender

51 RESULTS Data Trends Majority of females view this component as highly/extremely effective Male response trends differ from female response trends Males are split evenly between feeling this component is effective or less than effective Question #9- How effective was the CREED program with regard to motivating you to become a Rising Star? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) = 3.636, P =.162) Figure 13: Survey Question 9 Percent of Reponses by Gender

52 RESULTS Data Trends Both males and females shared similar response patterns The majority of both males and females view the CREED program as ineffective/slightly effective for the purposes of motivating one to become a CREED mentor Question #10- How effective was the CREED program with regard to motivating you to become a CREED mentor? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) =.072, P=.965) Figure 14: Survey Question 10 Percent of Reponses by Gender

53 RESULTS Data Trends Similar response pattern between males and females Majority of females responded the CREED program is effective for the purposes of motivating one to seek leadership roles outside athletics Male responses are evenly distributed between effective and less than effective Question #11- How effective was the CREED program with regard to motivating you to become a leader in organizations outside of athletics? No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) =.012, P=.994) Figure 15: Survey Question 11 Percent of Reponses by Gender

54 RESULTS Data Trends Difference in trends between males/females Majority of female respondents show this component was highly/extremely effective In contrast, majority of males show this component was ineffective/slightly effective Question #12- How effective was the CREED program with regard to motivating you to learn about and understand the “Carolina Culture?” No significant relationship between gender and response (X 2 (2) =.4.053, P=.132) Figure 16: Survey Question 12 Percent of Reponses by Gender


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