Presentation on theme: "Exemplification, Exposition, Illustration, Explanatory Writing"— Presentation transcript:
1Exemplification, Exposition, Illustration, Explanatory Writing Notes by Brian Yablon
2What is exposition? Longer works: Shorter works: Memoir Essay Speech BiographyAutobiographyHistoryResearch reportNewsletterBrochureShorter works:EssaySpeechLetterMemorandumNoteAdvertisementInstructionsNews or feature articleExposition is all around us. In fact, most people read exposition before reading fiction. It is their first choice of reading, such as picking up a magazine.
3Why write exemplification? The overall purpose of writing exemplification has two parts:You state your assertion (your opinion, perspective, your point of view, or how you’re going to treat your subject).You support or back up your assertion with evidence.The main idea about exemplification is to state a position and back it up. That way, your assertion is clearer, more believable, and worth paying attention to -- rather than simply a string of opinions that have no support.
4Specific uses To inform/To explain To clarify To persuade To entertain To compare or contrastTo show cause and/or effectTo report
5How do you do it?First, figure out who your audience is -- that will affect what you say and how you say it.Second, figure out what your purpose is -- that is the end result, the reaction you want to get from your audience.For audience, you need to figure out how much they know versus what they don’t know. You might alter your message, or at least the words you use, depending upon the audience you’re addressing. Each group, each profession has its own jargon, so you want to keep that in mind as well. How much do you need to educate your audience and how much can you assume is already known?Figuring out your purpose helps you focus your thinking and keep it focused from the beginning to the end of the essay.
6Then what?You need to generate as many pieces of support (evidence) as you can to help back up your assertion.You may not use everything you come up with, but it’s better to start with lots of stuff rather than too little stuff. It’s easier to pare down rather than add to something insufficient.
7What is evidence? References to authorities Anecdotes Personal experience or observationTypical situationsHypothetical situationsGeneralized situationsFactsNamesStatisticsReferences to authoritiesExpertsDocumentsAnecdotesExplanations and interpretationsExtended or briefQuotationsPersonal experience is vivid, immediate, and makes a strong connection to the reader.Typical situations: Objective in nature: can be especially convincing. About an actual event/situation, but you didn’t directly experience it. Source could be newspapers, magazines, televisionHypothetical: Speculative, but be sure it’s conceivableMight ask the reader to imagine a scenarioBe sure to acknowledge that your example is inventedEx: “suppose that…” or “let’s for a moment assume that…”Generalized: Composite of the typical and usualEx: “all of us, at one time or another, have been driven to distraction by a trivial annoyance like the buzzing of a fly or the sting of a paper cut.”Ex: “when most people get a compliment, they perk up, preen, and think the praise-giver is blessed with astute power of observation.”
8Evidence must be: Accurate Supportive, not contradictory Relevant Specific, detailed, precise, vividInterestingClear and easy to understandRepresentative (not the exception)Cited, if necessary.A.Gather the examples and write a paragraph for each.B.Establish through examples the validity of the thesis. Three examples, at least, may be enough.C.Use relevant examples, those that represent a reasonable cross-section of the subject.D.Use specific examples that make the meaning clear. Don’t add other generalizations.E.Arrange the examples to produce the greatest impactF.Establish a clear connection between your examples and the point you are trying to make.
9Choose a point of view First person P.O.V. Third person P.O.V. Uses “I” as the narrator.Is personal, which may be an advantage or disadvantage.Third person P.O.V.Uses “She,” “He,” “They,” or “It” to relay information.Is more distant, which may be an advantage or disadvantage.
10Thesis statementA good thesis statement is clear, opinionated, and specific.It relays:The topic of discussion.How you will treat that topic.Perhaps the focus of the discussion about that topic.It includes every major idea in the essay.
11A special note on structure An exemplification essay is usually highly structured.It has a stated, clearly identifiable thesis statement.Alas, if I cannot identify your thesis, the highest grade the paper will receive is a “D,” so this is important!
12Ways to organize Chronological Spatial Emphatic Moderate-Weak-Strong Simple to complexYou need:Strong thesisClear topic sentences -- that support the overall thesis.Evidence that supports each topic sentenceA clear conclusion
13Transitions Use suitable transitional words and phrases. For instanceFor exampleTo illustrateA classic exampleAlsoIn additionAdditionallyA case in point isAvoid unimaginative transitions like “My first example is…”
14Never! Never write the following types of sentences: “In this paragraph, I will explain…”In this essay, I will discuss…”Those are fine, even expected, in a scientific or mathematical paper, but for the typical English paper they are simply terrible, absolutely horrible!Additionally, you never really need to write:“I feel…” “I believe…” or “I think…” If it’s your paper, then the reader already knows they’re your thoughts, beliefs or feelings.
15SignificanceGood essays have importance; they answer a need, a question or problem that has been posed.The reader never puts down the essay and says, “So what?”You need to convey to your reader why your essay is important to read.
16Citing sources At the end of the text: Within the text: After a quotation or a paraphrase, give credit to your source of information.That credit goes within parenthesis and has a name and a page number, such as (Jones 6-7).This brief reference should point the reader to the more detailed reference at the end of the text.At the end of the text:Create a “Works Cited” page where you give all of the detailed information where a reader could find your specific source.
17Thoughts on quotations The MLA suggests that you limit your use of quoted material to no more than 10% of your entire essay. Try to quote or paraphrase only when the original author says something better than you can.Always:Lead in to your quotationCite your quotation correctlyExplain and/or interpret your quotationShow us why your quotation is significant
18Thoughts on paraphrases When you paraphrase, you take someone else’s words and put them into your own words.You still must cite the source where you got your ideas. Both name(s) and page numbers should be mentioned within the text of the essay, as well as in the Works Cited page.
19Sample in-text citation …Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).The sentence above shows the writer using a brief quote -- in order to make a point -- from someone named Burke. The quotation, “symbol-using animals” was found on page 3 of Burke’s original work.
20Sample Works Cited entry Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.The above entry would be one entry on a page full of entries, all at the end after the last page of the essay. This entry would allow the reader to find the specific source for the quotation or paraphrase cited (mentioned) within the text of the essay.
21Possible essay beginnings Broad statement narrowing to a limited subject (end introduction with thesis statement)Brief anecdote leading up to thesisComparative or opposite ideas leading up to thesisSeries of short questions leading to thesisQuotations leading to thesisRefutation of a common belief leading up to a thesisDramatic fact or statistic leading to thesis
22Possible essay endings Summary of information presentedPrediction based on information presentedQuotation leading to concluding statementStatistics leading to concluding statementRecommendation or call for actionEcho of the introductionPlease do not write, “In conclusion…”
23Be aware of your language Transitions show relationships between ideas, so make sure you’re clear and you make the choices you intend.Be wary of jargonAvoid slang and profanity.Remember that almost all words have a denotation and a connotation.
24Some additional thoughts Exemplification is very descriptive and uses many of the same techniques as fiction.Be aware of the tone you convey.Vary sentence structure.Vary sentence length.Vary paragraph length.
25Some final thoughts I assure you your first draft will be lousy. Subsequent drafts improve your writing.You make your writing worth reading by revising:AddingSubtractingReorganizingSubstituting
26The end of the processFirst, concentrate on your message -- what you have to say.Second, concentrate on your organization -- how you say it.Third, concentrate on surface features -- spelling, grammar, mechanics, usage.Always do your best work -- every draft.