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Comparing the Four Revolutions Occurred in or near original river valley societies Each was born of a crisis in the ancient world Subsequent breakthroughs.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparing the Four Revolutions Occurred in or near original river valley societies Each was born of a crisis in the ancient world Subsequent breakthroughs."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Comparing the Four Revolutions Occurred in or near original river valley societies Each was born of a crisis in the ancient world Subsequent breakthroughs and traditions tended to occur within original traditions Absorb new energy and continue to evolve Spread of cultures derived from these original heartlands to ever wider spheres Once a cultural pattern was set it usually endured Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

3 Philosophy in China Disintegration of old Zhou society Chinese revolution most similar to Greek “One hundred schools” Chinese thought sociopolitical and practical Greater staying power than Greek thought Chinese philosophy had religious dimension Two spheres are not separate Man stands between heaven and earth Harmonizes cosmos by his actions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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6 Confucius B.C.E. Latinized form of Kong Fuzi “Master Kong” Probably belonged to lower nobility Made his living by teaching Analects Saw himself as a transmitter and conservator of tradition Idealized early Shang and Zhou kings as paragons of virtue Saw early Zhou as a golden age Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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8 Confucian Foundations Relationships Ruler-subject; father-son; husband-wife; older brother- younger brother; friend-friend If everyone fulfilled the duties of their status, then harmony would prevail Junzi - “the son of the ruler” Virtues - humanity, integrity, righteousness, altruism and loyalty Cultivation of the gentleman Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

9 Confucian Sayings “You do not understand even life. How can you understand death?” “You are not able even to serve man. How can you serve the spirits?” “Let the ruler be a ruler, the subject a subject, the father a father, the son a son.” “Just desire the good yourself and the common people will be good.” “I have no hopes of meeting a sage. I would be content if I met someone who is a gentleman.” Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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11 Mencius B.C.E. Idealistic supporter of Confucian doctrine Human nature was inherently good Goal of education was to cultivate that innate goodness Heaven has a moral will Heaven wants government to see to the education and well-being of the people Idea that government ought to care for the people was a permanent part of Confucian tradition Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

12 Xunzi B.C.E. Tough-minded extension of Confucianism Heaven was amoral Indifferent to whether China was ruled by a tyrant or a sage Human nature was bad Desires and emotions led to social conflict Education as restraint on human nature Strong government to suppress human nature Influence on Legalism Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

13 Daoism Classics of Daoist thought Laozi 4 th century B.C.E. Zhuangzi 3 rd century B.C.E. The Dao or Way Creator and sustainer of universe Return to original simplicity Learn to do without desires Wuwei or “not doing” Too much government, even good government, can become oppressive Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

14 Legalism Leading Legalist thinkers Han Feizi d. 233 B.C.E. Li Si d. 208 B.C.E. True peace required a united country and thus a strong state Laws Should be severe and impartial Contain incentives For loyalty and bravery in battle For obedience and frugality in everyday life Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

15 Religion in India Indian culture and tradition include more than the word Hindu commonly implies today Evolution of Indian religious thought Later Vedic texts reflect a reaction against Excessive emphasis on sacrifice and ritual Accumulation of worldly wealth and power Hope for an afterlife in a paradise Maturation in Upanishads Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

16 The Upanishads Aryan rituals and sacrifices lost meaning Upanishads B.C.E. Spiritual treatises Reflected maturation of Hindu thought Two new emphases with Upanishads Knowledge over ritual Quest for ultimate truth Knowledge is the ultimate source of power Immortality in escape from existence Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

17 Nature of Reality in Hinduism Relationship between Atman and Brahman Atman – individual self Brahman – ultimate reality Atman-Brahman is reality Physical world is impermanent Samsara Transmigration Endless rebirth is burdensome and terrifying Goal is release from existence Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

18 Karma and Dharma Karma “Work” or “action” Good deeds bring good results Ordinary norm Extraordinary norm – moksha Dharma “Duty” or “moral law” Cosmic order Individual moral responsibility Better life in next round of existence Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

19 Social Responsibility Dharma as ideal Implications Action in the world of samsara as necessary Acceptance of responsibilities of one’s sex, class and caste group, stage in life Allows for legitimate self-interest Rebirth in paradise is highest goal attainable All achievements in world are subject to change Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

20 Ascetic Discipline Moksha as ideal Abandoning the world – implications Any action, good or bad, is counterproductive Nonaction is achieved only by withdrawal Sannyasi – “renouncer” Renunciation demands absence of ego Highest goal is liberation from all rebirth This moksha (liberation) is permanent Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

21 Jainism Mahavira B.C.E. Seen as human teacher Way to free soul from karmic restraints All souls in endless Samsara Focus on eliminating evil thoughts and acts Extreme self-denial Extraordinary norm seeker Ahimsa – “noninjury” Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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23 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama B.C.E. Legend of Four Signs Enlightenment Middle Path Between asceticism and indulgence Nirvana Release from karmic restraints Four Noble Truths Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

24 Buddha’s Four Noble Truths All life is dukkha or “suffering” The source of suffering is desire Cessation of desire is end of suffering Noble Eight-fold Path Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration Cardinal virtue is compassion for all beings Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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26 Hebrew History Polytheism norm in ancient world Hebrews – ethical monotheism Hebrew Bible as historical document Abraham – Hebrew from Ur B.C.E. – Hebrew arrival in Palestine Moses - 13 th century B.C.E. David – r B.C.E. Solomon – r B.C.E. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

27 Monotheistic Revolution Monotheistic revolution can be tied historically to division of Israel in 922 B.C.E. Rise of prophets Significance of history in the divine plan Israel’s troubles as punishment from God Nature of Yahweh Transcendent ideal of justice and goodness Moral god who demanded goodness Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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30 Bible Other element in monotheistic revolution was the Law itself Torah – (Pentateuch) Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Not only the Law, but a record of the Jews’ journey to the recognition of the Law Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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32 Abraham Abraham – symbolic founder of monotheism Jews, Christians and Muslims Probably just viewed his Lord as his chosen deity Among the many divinities worshipped Covenant Abraham promised to serve only God God promised to guide Hebrews as chosen people Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

33 Moses Difficult to determine how much the Mosaic covenant at Sinai marked monotheism Notion of the supremacy of Yahweh Hebrews at Sinai received both God’s holy Law – the Torah Promise of protection and guidance as long as they kept the Law Pivotal moment Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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35 Early Greek Thinkers In some ways, like their gods, the Greeks were similar to earlier Mesopotamians In other ways – radically different Pre-Socratics – Asia-Minor Raised questions about nature that brought about an intellectual revolution Speculated about nature of the world Guesses that were completely naturalistic No references to supernatural powers Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

36 Reason and Scientific Spirit Thales – B.C.E. Rational, natural explanations for phenomena Water as primary substance Anaximander – ca B.C.E. “Unlimited” – basic element Humans originated in water – evolved Heraclitus – 6th century B.C.E. “All is motion” Logos – guiding principle Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

37 Reason (cont.) Leucippus and Democritus World consists of tiny, solid particles - atoms Anaxagoras B.C.E. Particles - seeds, put together by mind Distinction between matter and mind Sophists - 5th century B.C.E. Received pay for teaching Claimed to teach reason and virtue Reasoned analysis to human beliefs, institutions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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39 Political and Moral Philosophy Philosophical Tradition beginning 5 th Century B.C.E. Concern for ethical, political and religious issues Moral principles for governing state Response to crisis of the polis Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

40 Socrates B.C.E. Committed to search for truth Knowledge about human affairs Contempt for democracy Primacy of his own individualism Pursued philosophy Even against wishes of his fellow citizens Seek “the greatest improvement of the soul” Significance of his trial Chose truth over life Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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42 Cynics Developed Socrates’ philosophy But also distorted it Diogenes of Sinope - ca. 400-ca. 325 Socrates disparaged wealth Diogenes wore rags and lived in a tub Happiness lay in satisfying natural needs in the simplest and most direct way Ridiculed all religious observances Wisdom from pursuing a proper style of life Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

43 Plato B.C.E. Student of Socrates First systematic philosopher Founded the Academy Believed in polis and its values Virtues - order, harmony, justice Episteme - a body of true and unchanging wisdom Philosopher-king Subordination of individual to the community Knowledge of the good Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

44 Aristotle B.C.E. Student of Plato In turn tutored Alexander the Great Founded the Lyceum Gathering, ordering and analyzing all human knowledge Constitution of the Athenians Wide-ranging interests Logic, physics, astronomy, biology, ethics, rhetoric, literary criticism, politics Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.

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