Objectives: Indicate how America reacted to Pearl Harbor and prepared to wage war against both Germany and Japan. Describe the mobilization of the American economy for war and the mobilization of manpower and womanpower for both the military and wartime production. Describe the war’s effects on American society, including regional migration, race relations, and women’s roles. Explain the early Japanese successes in East Asia and the Pacific, and the American strategy for countering them. AP Focus Early in the war, Germany, Japan, and Italy have considerable military success. The Allies, except for France, which had surrendered in 1940, are fortunate not to be overwhelmed completely. Fearing that they will be disloyal, President Roosevelt orders the detention of Japanese Americans, a serious violation of basic American civil rights.
CHAPTER THEMES Unified by Pearl Harbor, America effectively carried out a war mobilization effort that produced vast social and economic changes within American society. Following its “get Hitler first” strategy, the United States and its Allies invaded and liberated conquered Europe from Fascist rule. The slower strategy of island-hopping against Japan also proceeded successfully until the atomic bomb brought a sudden end to World War II.
December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor/Philippines Battleship fleet virtually wiped out 3 carriers out that day Italy/Germany declared war on U.S. on Dec. 11, 1941 ABC-1 agreement (Jan, 29, 1941 to March 27, 1941) get Germany 1 st Assimilation of Immigrants occurred quickly One exception-Executive order 9066
War Production Board assigned priorities for transportation and access to raw materials National speed limits/gasoline rationing Office of Price Administration control inflation National War Labor Board ceilings on wage increases Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act strikes against government operated industry are illegal
15 million men 216,000 women-noncombat roles WAACs (army) WAVES (navy) SPARs (coast guard) New workers needed to be found Mexico-Bracero program 6 million women worked outside the home government day cares Great majority of women stayed home
War industries Los Angeles Detroit Seattle Baton Rouge Seeds of the postwar blossoming of the sunbelt Executive Order forbidding discrimination in defense industries FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission) NAACP membership rose CORE started in 1942 Congress of Racial Equality
Disposable personal income doubled Income tax expanded to catch 4 times more max rates as high as 90% 49 billion to 259 billion-U.S. debt between 31 and 45
Japan successfully attacked: Guam, Wake, and the Philippines Hong Kong, British Malaya (rubber and tin) Cut the Burma Road used by U.S. to supply Chiang Kai-shek Dutch East Indies-oil rich Philippines MacArthur withdrew to Bataan with Filipino troops, a defensive position until April 9, 1942 MacArthur ordered to withdraw to Australia Bataan death march-80 mile march (atrocities on both sides) New Guinea, north of Australia Solomon Islands Battle of Coral Sea checked the Japanese in May 1942
June 3-6, 1942 1,000 miles northwest of Honolulu Why is this a strategic position? Admiral Chester W. Nimitz carrier force Japan secured Kiska and Attu-Aleutian archipelago August 1942-Guadalcanal Island-Solomon Islands Japan gave up in February 1943 with 20,000 losses compared to 1700 for the U.S. (10:1)