Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: The Kings Mrs. Kenny Religion 9 2013. Chapter 6 explains how Israel creates: A king A capital city Wealth Military power A palace A Temple."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6: The Kings Mrs. Kenny Religion
Chapter 6 explains how Israel creates: A king A capital city Wealth Military power A palace A Temple to their God
Books of Bible Covered: 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, and 1 Kings 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 Kings explain Israel’s transition to nationhood (around 1000 B.C.) – The first three kings of Israel: Saul, David and Solomon – Israel surviving Philistine aggression – Israel growing in success and power
Chapter 6: The Kings Deuteronomists wrote about these events approximately 400 yrs after it happened, and had mixed feelings about Israel being ruled by a king. (Remember, Deuteronomists were “hard core Jews!”) They thought that by being like other nations, the seeds of destruction would lead to the downfall of the nation.
Chapter 6: The Kings However, David and his descendants would endure forever as leaders of Israel. David is basis for prophecy that there would be a Messiah – Jesus Christ! These three books were all part of the Deuteronomic History, and written by the Deuteronomists during the Babylonian Exile. These are also included in the Historical Books of the Old Testament:
Chapter 6: The Kings 1 Samuel Completes the theme of the reign of Saul 2 Samuel The rise of David to his kingship 1 Kings Israel’s unfaithfulness despite its prophets’ warnings; written to remind the exiles that they, not God, had broken the Covenant. It was also to remind them that their relationship with God would be repaired through repenting.
After Judges… The book of Judges ends with: “In those days there was no king in Israel, all the people did what was right in their own eyes” (21:25). – By the end of Judges, there is no central leader in Israel. – There were bursts of leadership, but nothing consistent.
Israel has to become a nation because… – Things kept “going downhill” for the people of Israel, who were morally and spiritually tested. – The inconsistency of leadership was not enough to carry the people, especially in defending them against the Philistines. – Philistines were too powerful to fight. – The tribes operated independently of one another, not in unison as they did in the exile. They would need to be unified in order to prevent themselves from being conquered.
1 & 2 SAMUEL AND 1 KINGS EXPLAIN ISRAEL’S TRANSITION TO NATIONHOOD (AROUND 1000 B.C.)
Samuel the Prophet Raised by Eli (priest of the temple) who realized God was calling him. Eli instructs Samuel to respond to God with: – “Speak, for your servant is listening.” Priest and 13 th judge Israel lives in peace under his leadership
Samuel the Prophet The people want a king to succeed him – so they can be like other nations. Samuel doesn’t necessarily agree that a king is the right answer, because God alone is the king of Israel.
Samuel the Prophet Samuel warns that a king will draft their sons to make arms, build chariots, and reap harvests. He warns that a king will draft their daughters to make perfumes, cook, and bake. A king will also take their fields, vineyards, olive groves, servants, donkeys, sheep, and a tithe of their grain. A king will also make the Israelites into slaves.
Samuel the Prophet However, Samuel obeys God’s command to give the people a king. He anoints an ordinary, shy man named Saul.
Saul & David in Conflict The major theme of 1 Samuel is Saul’s reign. Saul breaks faith with God, which leads Samuel to secretly anoint David as king. – God rejects Saul because he is unfaithful, swayed by his own anxieties, and subject to the pressures of those around him. He does not truly trust in God or follow God’s commands. – In choosing David, God instructs Samuel to overlook Jesse’s older, taller sons, who seem to have obvious regal potential, and to secretly anoint Jesse’s youngest son, David, as king.
2 biblical incidents that tell of Saul meeting David: 1.David coming to play the harp for Saul to lighten his dark moods. 2.Young David – armed with only a sling (not a slingshot!) – single-handedly defeats the Philistine giant Goliath. (1 Sam: 17) 3.Video (6 minutes)Video
David and Saul Video (8 minutes) Video Saul becomes jealous and tried to kill David. – David’s popularity, attractiveness, and skill begin to arouse jealousy in an insecure and emotionally unstable Saul. Saul’s son Jonathan and David develop a deep friendship. David, though imperfect, remains loyal to his people, and even to Saul. – David doesn’t kill Saul, even when he has a chance to, and David swears never to harm Saul’s descendants. – David ‘s response to the deaths of Saul, Abner, and Ishbaal is not even relief. It is deep anger at their murders and profound mourning at the losses. Saul dies while battling the Philistines. He kills himself rather than being captured. The Philistines fasten his body to one of the walls of their cities.
King David, Nation Builder At Saul’s death, David is publicly anointed as king over the southern territory of Judah, then eventually becomes king of all Israel. A series of betrayals and murders accompanies his rise to power, but he is unwavering in his loyalty to Saul and everyone close to Saul.
David ends the threat of the Philistines and unites all Israelite tribes. makes Jerusalem the capital city, and brings the ark of the Covenant there. – Jerusalem is a good choice, because it had never belonged to any of the 12 tribes. David could not be accused of playing favorites by bringing his court there. Also, Jerusalem was conveniently located right between the northern and southern tribes. – When the ark of the Covenant comes in, David dances joyfully, praising God, and Michal (Saul’s daughter & David’s wife) berates/scolds him for acting like a fool.
The Davidic Covenant forms a covenant with God (the Davidic Covenant) = God promises that the line of David’s royal descendants will rule forever. This is connected with the Jewish expectation that a messiah would reappear from the royal line.
David Sins commits many sins to cover up his adultery with Bathsheba. He lies and manipulates others. He arranges for Bathsheba’s husband (Uriah the Hittite) to be killed, to cover up his sin. repents with the help of Nathan (a prophet), who tells him a parable and prophesizes not death but tragedies and treacheries for David and his family. Video (5 minutes) Video
David the Model King is a prime example of God working through flawed humans. David’s flaws are included by the Deuteronomists to show that David was not above God’s law. David must repent for his sins, and suffer greatly for them. The message for us is that God works through limited and sinful persons, giving us all hope that God somehow brings about divine purposes even through our flaws. had a devotion to God that made him a model king and a figure of hope for the exiles.
David’s Sons David’s sons also cause him tragedy and grief. Amnon rapes his half-sister Tamar. Absalom kills Amnon, and Absalom plots to take over after David’s kingship. David does not punish Amnon, even though Mosaic Law demands the execution of a virgin’s rapist, and he trusts Absalom to come back to his court after killing Amnon, failing to recognize Absalom’s treacherous intentions. David seems to be a permissive parent whose devotion to his sons makes him abandon his good sense.
Solomon David’s son is Solomon. Solomon succeeds his father as king of Israel, and has 700 wives! Video (22 minutes) – Solomon’s Kingdom Video
Wisdom of Solomon! Solomon asks God for wisdom, which he is granted. 3 examples of Solomon’s wisdom: – Solomon’s wisdom is best illustrated in his clever way of determining who is the real mother of a child. Solomon settles the dispute over a child by calling for a sword to divide it in half, knowing that the real mother would never allow that. – Solomon utters 3,000 proverbs and writes 1,005 songs. – He discusses plants, beasts, birds, reptiles, and fishes.
Wisdom of Solomon? Despite his wisdom, Solomon turns out to be unwise in the ways of God because his reign is marked with oppression, royal extravagance, and idolatry.
Solomon: Temple Builder Solomon directs the building of the first Temple of Israel. The first Temple is in Jerusalem. – (God had previously told David his successor would provide a proper place for the ark of the Covenant in 2 Samuel 6 & 7.) Solomon forms an elite group of administrators and introduces forced labor and taxation/tithing to provide supplies for the palace and government officials.
Solomon: Temple Builder God warns Solomon that the Temple will fall if the people forsake the Covenant. God warns Solomon that his family line will not be allowed to keep the throne, and he will lose all the tribes except for Judah. Video (22 minutes) – Solomon and the Temple Video
Solomon: Temple Builder Over 40 years, Solomon leads Israel from unity and loyalty to the Covenant to idolatry and near- slavery. Idolatry is the worst burden Israel inherits. Also, the people are oppressed by taxes and forced labor, and the kingdom faces an impending breakup. – northern kingdom– Israel – southern kingdom – Judah Video (22 minutes) – The Demise of Solomon Video
Biblical Theme: Barren Women Just as God chose weak, young, obscure people to be prophets, judges, leaders, and kings, God selected barren women to bear extraordinary children! By choosing barren women for a special purpose, God has proven in another way that only God is powerful and wise. By raising up the lowly (which barren women were considered to be), God has reminded humankind to depend on God and follow the ways of God.
Biblical Theme: Barren Women What are some examples of these “barren women” have we studied in the Bible thus far? How many can you name?
Names to Know 1.Eli 2.Saul 3.Solomon 4.David 5.Nathan 6.Jonathan 7.Uriah 8.Samuel 9.Amnon 10.Absalom 11.Michal 12.Tamar 13.Hannah 14.Elkanah 15.Bathsheba 1.Priest who raises Samuel 2.First king of Israel 3.David’s son, last king over singular kingdom of Israel 4.Great king of Israel 5.Prophet who tells David a parable 6.Son of Saul, David’s close friend 7.A Hittite man, husband of Bathsheba 8.Prophet, anointer of kings 9.Son of David, who rapes half-sister 10.Son of David who kills his brother, tries to take over the throne 11.Daughter of Saul, wife of David 12.Daughter of David 13.Mother of Samuel 14.Father of Samuel 15.David’s mistress, whom he impregnates with Solomon