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Sex Linked and Codominant Genes.. Attached Earlobe Unattached Earlobe Tongue RollTongue FlipTongue Fold Hitchhiker’s Thumb Ear Wax Ear Diagram.

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Presentation on theme: "Sex Linked and Codominant Genes.. Attached Earlobe Unattached Earlobe Tongue RollTongue FlipTongue Fold Hitchhiker’s Thumb Ear Wax Ear Diagram."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sex Linked and Codominant Genes.

2 Attached Earlobe Unattached Earlobe Tongue RollTongue FlipTongue Fold Hitchhiker’s Thumb Ear Wax Ear Diagram

3 Hand Fold Bent Pinky PTC Tasting Widow’s Peak Dimples Mid-digital hair Bent Little Finger Short Hallux Finger Length

4 carrier ? ? Unknown phenotype female maleAffected individuals consanguineous marriage Female carrier of an x-linked trait marriage Extra-marital mating proband diseased progeny Stillborn or abortion identical (monozygotic) twins Dizygotic twins

5 PEDIGREE

6 Generations are numbered w/Roman numerals. Within each generation, individuals are numbered from oldest to youngest. GENERATIONS

7 SEX-LINKED RECESSIVE TRAITS More affected males than females. Affected grand- father to grand- son thru carrier female. Females do not manifest the disorder.

8 Examples of sex-linked recessive traits: COLOR BLINDNESS

9 Examples of sex-linked recessive traits: COLOR BLINDNESS

10 How it works… Female XX and Male XY. Traits can be carried on either the X or Y chromosomes. ( Mostly on the X). Dominant and recessive laws still apply.

11 Problems… 1. 1.Baldness: Mother X B X b x Father X B Y 2. 2.Color Blindness : Mother X b X b x Father X B Y 3. 3.Hemophilia: Mother X B X B x Father X b Y X

12 Sex Linked Traits – Punnett Squares

13 Huntington’s Disease Woody Guthrie Arlo Guthrie Children DOMINANT Allele DISEASES Dominant allele -- you have the disease or you don’t Lobster Foot

14 Examples of Simple Dominant Disorders Dwarfism Polydactyly and Syndactyly Hypertension Hereditary Edema Chronic Simple Glaucoma – Drainage system for fluid in the eye does not work and pressure builds up, leading to damage of the optic nerve which can result in blindness. Huntington’s Disease – Nervous system degeneration resulting in certain and early death. Onset in middle age. Neurofibromatosis – Benign tumors in skin or deeper Familial Hypercholesterolemia – High blood cholesterol and propensity for heart disease Progeria – Drastic premature aging, rare, die by age 13. Symptoms include limited growth, alopecia, small face and jaw, wrinkled skin, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular problems but mental development not affected.

15 Dominant doesn’t necessarily mean commonplace Albinism Achondroplasia Both parents can be carriers to have an affected child 2 affected parents will usually produce an affected child RECESSIVE Allele DISEASE

16 Examples of Simple Recessive Disorders Congenital Deafness Diabetes Mellitus Sickle Cell anemia Albinism Phenylketoneuria (PKU) – Inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. Requires elimination of this amino acid from the diet or results in serious mental retardation. Galactosemia – enlarged liver, kidney failure, brain and eye damage because can’t digest milk sugar Cystic Fibrosis – affects mucus and sweat glands, thick mucus in lungs and digestive tract that interferes with gas exchange, lethal. Tay Sachs Disease – Nervous system destruction due to lack of enzyme needed to break down lipids necessary for normal brain function. Early onset and common in Ashkenazi Jews; results in blindness, seizures, paralysis, and early death.

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18 Polygenic Inheritance in Humans includes skin, eye, and hair color light-skinned X dark-skinned F1: offspring have intermediate skin colors F2: skin color range from light to dark skin color of the grandparents Children have intermediate skin color.

19 Polygenic Traits… Eye color is determined by more than one gene Thus eye color appears to vary on an almost continuous scale from brown to green to gray to blue Eye color is determined by two genes, one controls texture of the iris which refracts light to make blue. A second determines relative abundance of melanin. When a small amount of melanin is present, green eyes result while brown and black eyes result from relatively increasing amounts of melanin

20 Polygenic Traits… Hair color is determined by more than one gene Thus hair color appears to vary on an almost continuous scale from black to brown to blond to red The brown and black pigment is melanin The red pigment is an iron containing molecule

21 Cataracts Glaucoma Hereditary deafness Retinitis pigmentosa Schizophrenia Migrane Headahes Prostate cancer Acute Leukemia Brain cancer Muscular dystrophy Colon cancer Alzheimer’s disease Fish odor syndrome CHROMOSOME 1

22 Colon cancer Obesity Liver cancer Diabetes mellitus Cleft palate Cataracts Epilepsy Parkinson’s disease Muscular dystrophy Pseudohermaphroditism Ovarian cancer Micropenis CHROMOSOME 2

23 Huntington’s disease Night blindness Phenylketonuria Parkinson’s disease Alcoholism Red hair Mast cell leukemia Achondroplasia Dopamine receptor Retinitis pigmentosa Hip dysplasia CHROMOSOME 4

24 Blood Type 4 Types A,B,ABand O4 Types A,B,ABand O Parent 1 Allele Parent 2 Allele GenotypePhenotype AAAAA ABABAB AOAOA BAABAB BBBBB BOBOB OOOOO

25 I Am My Own Grandpa I Am My Own Grandpa Many, many years ago when I was twenty-three I was married to a widow who was pretty as could be. This widow had a grown-up daughter who had hair of red. My father fell in love with her and soon the two were wed.Many, many years ago when I was twenty-three I was married to a widow who was pretty as could be. This widow had a grown-up daughter who had hair of red. My father fell in love with her and soon the two were wed. This made my dad my son-in-law and changed my very life For my daughter was my mother, 'cause she was my father's wife. To complicate the matter even though it brought me joy I soon became the father of a bouncing baby boy.This made my dad my son-in-law and changed my very life For my daughter was my mother, 'cause she was my father's wife. To complicate the matter even though it brought me joy I soon became the father of a bouncing baby boy. My little baby then became a brother-in-law to dad And so he became my uncle though it made me very sad For if he is my uncle then that also makes him brother, To the widow's lovely daughter who, of course, was my step-mother.My little baby then became a brother-in-law to dad And so he became my uncle though it made me very sad For if he is my uncle then that also makes him brother, To the widow's lovely daughter who, of course, was my step-mother. Father's wife then had a child which kept them on the run, And he became my grandchild, 'cause he was my daughter's son; My wife she is my mother's mother and it makes me blue, Because although she is my wife, she's my grandmother too.Father's wife then had a child which kept them on the run, And he became my grandchild, 'cause he was my daughter's son; My wife she is my mother's mother and it makes me blue, Because although she is my wife, she's my grandmother too. Now if she is my grandmother than I'm her grandchild And every time I think of it, it nearly drives me wild; For now I have become the strangest case you ever saw As husband of my grandmother I am my own grandpa.Now if she is my grandmother than I'm her grandchild And every time I think of it, it nearly drives me wild; For now I have become the strangest case you ever saw As husband of my grandmother I am my own grandpa. Chorus: Oh, I'm my own grandpa, I'm my own grandpa It sounds funny, I know, but it really is so Oh, I'm my own grandpa.Chorus: Oh, I'm my own grandpa, I'm my own grandpa It sounds funny, I know, but it really is so Oh, I'm my own grandpa. Below is a link to the song that can be played in class:Below is a link to the song that can be played in class:Below is a link to the song that can be played in class:Below is a link to the song that can be played in class:

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