Presentation on theme: "Exceptions to the Rules Pedigrees Karyotypes Ethics"— Presentation transcript:
1Exceptions to the Rules Pedigrees Karyotypes Ethics Human HeredityExceptions to the RulesPedigreesKaryotypesEthics
2Examples of Dominant Disorders DwarfismPolydactyly and SyndactylyHypertensionHereditary EdemaChronic Simple Glaucoma – Drainage system for fluid in the eye does not work and pressure builds up, leading to damage of the optic nerve which can result in blindness.Huntington’s Disease – Nervous system degeneration resulting in certain and early death. Onset in middle age.Neurofibromatosis – Benign tumors in skin or deeperFamilial Hypercholesterolemia – High blood cholesterol and propensity for heart diseaseProgeria – Drastic premature aging, rare, die by age 13. Symptoms include limited growth, alopecia, small face and jaw, wrinkled skin, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular problems but mental development not affected.
3Examples of Recessive Disorders Congenital DeafnessDiabetes MellitusSickle Cell anemiaAlbinismPhenylketoneuria (PKU) – Inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. Requires elimination of this amino acid from the diet or results in serious mental retardation.Galactosemia – enlarged liver, kidney failure, brain and eye damage because can’t digest milk sugarCystic Fibrosis – affects mucus and sweat glands, thick mucus in lungs and digestive tract that interferes with gas exchange, lethal.Tay Sachs Disease – Nervous system destruction due to lack of enzyme needed to break down lipids necessary for normal brain function. Early onset and common in Ashkenazi Jews; results in blindness, seizures, paralysis, and early death.
5Incomplete DominanceThe heterozygous is a blend between the dominant and recessive.RR = redrr = whiteRr = pink
6Codominance NS = some of each SS = sickle cells NN = normal cells sick The heterozygous condition, both alleles are expressed equallySickle Cell Anemia in HumansNS = some of eachSS = sickle cellsNN = normal cellssick
7PolygenicMore than one gene contributes to the trait so there can be many phenotypes
8Multiple Alleles There are more than two alleles for a trait Blood type in humansBlood Alleles?A, B, OBlood Types?Type A, Type B, Type AB, Type O
9Rules for Blood Type A and B are codominant AA = Type ABB = Type BAB = Type ABA and B are dominant over OAO = type ABO = type BOO = type O
15How to Construct a Pedigree? A Pedigree is a visual showing the pattern of inheritance for a trait. (Family tree)Symbols and Rules:Male = Female =Affected = Unaffected =Link parents together with a line and then make a vertical line to connect to offspring.
16Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017Is this trait dominant or recessive?Note that the trait can appear in offspring of parents without the trait.G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
17Chromosomes and Inheritance Is this trait dominant or recessive?4/11/2017Note that the trait appears in every generation and ½ the offspring of an affected heterozygote are expected to show the trait.G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
23Chromosomes and Inheritance The Frequency of Chromosome Non-Disjunction And Down Syndrome Rises Sharply with Maternal Age4/11/2017The phenomenon is clear – the explanation isn’t.G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
24Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
31Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)Removing a cell for diagnosis from a human embryo.G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
32Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus SamplingMany new techniques for learning about individual genes rather than whole chromosomes are available or under development.G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
33If you were to test your DNA…who does it belong to? 12. In the film, a person could have a potential romantic partner sequenced. Discuss the positive and negative aspects of having this technology available to prospective mates.
34If you were to test your DNA…who does it belong to? 16. You are an employer and know from genetic testing that the most qualified applicant for the job has a 70% chance of developing Multiple Sclerosis in one year's time. Would you hire this person? Why or why not?
38Picking your Kid’s Traits 14. During a scene in GATTACA, Vincent’s parents visited a doctor who specialized in child conception to select for the best traits for his future brother. They hoped that his brother would have the best possible chances for a successful life. Some of the traits mentioned in GATTACA included intelligence, height and any possibility of inheritable diseases. If you decided to have a child one day and are given the opportunity to select for special traits, would you do so? Explain why or why not.
39Picking your Kid’s Traits 15. Wouldn't every parent want to ensure that their child was perfect and had the attributes of physical attractiveness, intelligence and athletic prowess to be able to do whatever he or she wanted in life? If so, why is the society portrayed in this film so devoid of happiness, vitality and fun?
40Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017DollyIn 1996, Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly from an adult sheep.Superhuman, by Robert Winston and Lori Oliwensteinp. 97G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
41Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017CopyCatIn February 2002, researchers from Texas A & M reported the live birth of a cloned tabby.Researchers are interested in using cloned cats in AIDS research, since feline AIDS is a good model for human AIDS.Superhuman, by Robert Winston and Lori Oliwensteinp. 97G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
42Chromosomes and Inheritance 4/11/2017NoahSuperhuman, by Robert Winston and Lori Oliwensteinp. 97G. Podgorski, Biol 1010
43Cloning18. Cloning is a process in which you make a genetically identical organism. People say that this could be cool others say it is messing with Mother Nature. If you had the opportunity to clone yourself, would you do it and why?
44Cloning19. If a couple had a baby who died and could not have any more babies, but had the opportunity to clone their baby, should they be allowed to clone it?
46Stem Cell Research20. Stem cell research is another ethical issue. Stem cells are cells from an early embryo that can become any type of cell like a heart, lung, liver, or skin cell. The reason people are researching these cells are because you can actually grow new tissues and organs to replace damaged ones. For instance, it may be possible to grow a new set of lungs for someone dying of lung cancer. The ethical issue with this type of research is that in order to get this type of stem cells you have to destroy an embryo so it will never grow into a person. Do you think this research should be done? Why or why not?
47GATTACA17. What would you say to a friend who believed themselves to be solely a product of their DNA and with no true freedom?
48GATTACA13. The technology to do what was done in the movie is definitely possible within the next fifty years. Do you think that Vincent’s world could eventually happen in America? Why?