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Beef Production.  In this unit you learn about: Breeds and their Characteristics. Gestation Periods & Oestrous Cycle Dental Formula Grazing Systems Target.

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Presentation on theme: "Beef Production.  In this unit you learn about: Breeds and their Characteristics. Gestation Periods & Oestrous Cycle Dental Formula Grazing Systems Target."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beef Production

2  In this unit you learn about: Breeds and their Characteristics. Gestation Periods & Oestrous Cycle Dental Formula Grazing Systems Target weights and ages. Compensatory Growth Condition Scoring Beef Breeding Management Programme. A.I. V’s Bull Buildings Used in Beef Production Veronica Walsh

3  The beef industry in Ireland is the largest sector of the Irish Agricultural Economy  There are 4.5 million beef animals in the country, producing 0.5 million tonnes of beef per year, of which 80% is exported.  The main export countries = UK, Germany, Egypt & Iran.  In Irish farms, most beef animals originate from the dairy herd.  These animals originate mainly from Munster and are relocated around the country.  Beef farming, however, has the lowest income per hectare in Irish farms in comparison to other types of farming.  It relies on the use of good spring grass and good silage.

4  Recommended age of mating - 15 months  Recommended body weight at mating – 320kg  Gestation Period days  Oestrous Cycle - 21 days  Duration - 18 hours  Put in calf no later than 2.5 months after calving.  Spring calving system  At least 1 calf per year= Reproductive Efficiency  Phylum Chordata  Even toe ungulates.

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6  At Birth = 40Kg  At Turnout 1 st Summer = Kg  At Housing 1 st Winter = 200Kg= Weanling  At Turnout 2 nd Summer = Kg Yearling  At Housing 2 nd Winter = Kg  At finishing= 550 – 750Kg  Depends on Breed & Sex Veronica Walsh

7  Incisors, Canines, Premolars, Molars X 2

8 Veronica Walsh

9 1. What is the recommended mating age of a cow? 2. State the following 1. gestation period of a cow? 2. Recommended body weight & age at mating 3. Length & duration of Oestrous cycle. 3. What is meant by a spring calving system and why is it used? 4. List the target weights at birth, at turnout for first & second summer, at housing for first & second winter. 5. What is the dental formula of a cow

10  Bulls – dangerous, violent, more fencing, cover unintentionally, etc- testosterone- fastest growth rate  Steers- castrated bulls- no testosterone. Lower growth rates  Cows- lowest growth rates  Reproductive Efficiency= is the number of calves weaned per 100cows served

11 Bull Beef  Male animals only  Reared without castration  Reared to about 16 months.  Better Growth Rates due to testosterone.  Need high quality feed.  Small market here due (meat is strong)  kg gain per day after weaning. Heifer Beef  Female Animal  Smaller  Don't kill out as well.  Take longer to mature  Heifer calves are cheaper.  0.6/0.7 kgs gain per day

12  British  Hereford  Aberdeen Angus  Continental  Limousin  Simmental  Charolais  Dual Purpose  Friesian  Dairy Shorthorn

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14  The Hereford are a typical British breed, bred in Ireland for over 200 years.  They are distinguished by their white heads, white stripe on the back of their necks and white underbelly, throat and legs (with a predominant brown / red body)  As well as providing beef, the Hereford is useful as a sire.  The Hereford, when crossed with the Friesian produces the Black White-head, a popular breed for the British market.  There are two strains, a large frame and a small frame.  The small frame is used for breeding with heifers, as this will make calving easier.

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16  The Angus is smaller than Herefords and are considered the best example of a British breed.  They have the typical barrelled shaped body, small head, short leg and highly developed hind quarters.  They are black in colour and are hornless. These are dominant characteristics when crossed with other breeds.  The meat quality is extremely good, but tend to be quite fat when young.  This affects their selling quality in the continental market.  Friesian heifers are often services with an Angus.

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18  This breed is increasing in popularity as a sire for dairy herds, as there is infrequent calving problems.  The Limousin also is known as having an excellent carcase quality, and the ability to put on masses of lean meat quickly.  The Limousin / Friesian offspring are ideal suckler dams.  The red colour of the Limousin is recessive to black colours of Friesians so little red appears in the offspring of such a cross.

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22 Beef Breeds Dairy Breeds Bottom line and Underline Parallel Top Line and Underline converge at point. Shoulders & hindquarters wide and meaty Shoulders narrow, hind- quarters narrow. Head short and wideHead long & narrow Back level and well fleshed Back level but thin Legs are long, wide and deep Legs are long, wide strong but not fleshy

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24 1. Name 2 continental beef breeds & their characteristics. 2. Name 2 British beef breeds & their characteristics. 3. Why are most beef animals farmed in Ireland steers and not bulls? 4. Highlight the main differences between bull beef production and heifer beef production. 5. Give 4 differences between beef and dairy breeds.


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