Presentation on theme: "Beef Production. In this unit you learn about: Breeds and their Characteristics. Gestation Periods & Oestrous Cycle Dental Formula Grazing Systems Target."— Presentation transcript:
In this unit you learn about: Breeds and their Characteristics. Gestation Periods & Oestrous Cycle Dental Formula Grazing Systems Target weights and ages. Compensatory Growth Condition Scoring Beef Breeding Management Programme. A.I. V’s Bull Buildings Used in Beef Production Veronica Walsh
The beef industry in Ireland is the largest sector of the Irish Agricultural Economy There are 4.5 million beef animals in the country, producing 0.5 million tonnes of beef per year, of which 80% is exported. The main export countries = UK, Germany, Egypt & Iran. In Irish farms, most beef animals originate from the dairy herd. These animals originate mainly from Munster and are relocated around the country. Beef farming, however, has the lowest income per hectare in Irish farms in comparison to other types of farming. It relies on the use of good spring grass and good silage.
Recommended age of mating - 15 months Recommended body weight at mating – 320kg Gestation Period days Oestrous Cycle - 21 days Duration - 18 hours Put in calf no later than 2.5 months after calving. Spring calving system At least 1 calf per year= Reproductive Efficiency Phylum Chordata Even toe ungulates.
At Birth = 40Kg At Turnout 1 st Summer = Kg At Housing 1 st Winter = 200Kg= Weanling At Turnout 2 nd Summer = Kg Yearling At Housing 2 nd Winter = Kg At finishing= 550 – 750Kg Depends on Breed & Sex Veronica Walsh
Incisors, Canines, Premolars, Molars X 2
1. What is the recommended mating age of a cow? 2. State the following 1. gestation period of a cow? 2. Recommended body weight & age at mating 3. Length & duration of Oestrous cycle. 3. What is meant by a spring calving system and why is it used? 4. List the target weights at birth, at turnout for first & second summer, at housing for first & second winter. 5. What is the dental formula of a cow
Bulls – dangerous, violent, more fencing, cover unintentionally, etc- testosterone- fastest growth rate Steers- castrated bulls- no testosterone. Lower growth rates Cows- lowest growth rates Reproductive Efficiency= is the number of calves weaned per 100cows served
Bull Beef Male animals only Reared without castration Reared to about 16 months. Better Growth Rates due to testosterone. Need high quality feed. Small market here due (meat is strong) kg gain per day after weaning. Heifer Beef Female Animal Smaller Don't kill out as well. Take longer to mature Heifer calves are cheaper. 0.6/0.7 kgs gain per day
The Hereford are a typical British breed, bred in Ireland for over 200 years. They are distinguished by their white heads, white stripe on the back of their necks and white underbelly, throat and legs (with a predominant brown / red body) As well as providing beef, the Hereford is useful as a sire. The Hereford, when crossed with the Friesian produces the Black White-head, a popular breed for the British market. There are two strains, a large frame and a small frame. The small frame is used for breeding with heifers, as this will make calving easier.
The Angus is smaller than Herefords and are considered the best example of a British breed. They have the typical barrelled shaped body, small head, short leg and highly developed hind quarters. They are black in colour and are hornless. These are dominant characteristics when crossed with other breeds. The meat quality is extremely good, but tend to be quite fat when young. This affects their selling quality in the continental market. Friesian heifers are often services with an Angus.
This breed is increasing in popularity as a sire for dairy herds, as there is infrequent calving problems. The Limousin also is known as having an excellent carcase quality, and the ability to put on masses of lean meat quickly. The Limousin / Friesian offspring are ideal suckler dams. The red colour of the Limousin is recessive to black colours of Friesians so little red appears in the offspring of such a cross.
Beef Breeds Dairy Breeds Bottom line and Underline Parallel Top Line and Underline converge at point. Shoulders & hindquarters wide and meaty Shoulders narrow, hind- quarters narrow. Head short and wideHead long & narrow Back level and well fleshed Back level but thin Legs are long, wide and deep Legs are long, wide strong but not fleshy
1. Name 2 continental beef breeds & their characteristics. 2. Name 2 British beef breeds & their characteristics. 3. Why are most beef animals farmed in Ireland steers and not bulls? 4. Highlight the main differences between bull beef production and heifer beef production. 5. Give 4 differences between beef and dairy breeds.