2MonochronicIn Monochronic cultures, the belief is that time is fixed and people need to regulate their lives by it. The needs of people are secondary to the demands of time, schedules, deadlines, etc.Schedules are sacred, to be late is rude, interruptions are considered bad, and time is money
3MonochronicThese cultures believe that time is quantifiable and that a limited amount of it is available.People do one thing at a time and finish it before starting something else, regardless of circumstances.In these cultures the focus is on the task and getting it done quickly, and on establishing and maintaining relationships.
4PolychronicIn Polychronic cultures, the belief is that time is the servant and tool of the people. Time is adjusted to suit the needs of the people.Plans frequently change, and being made to wait is normalThese cultures believe that more time is always available, and you are never too busy.
5PolychronicPeople often have to do several things simultaneously, as required by circumstances.It is not necessary to finish one thing before starting another, nor finish your business with one person before starting with another.In these cultures the focus is on the person and establishing relationships, and on the task and getting the job done quickly
6What are you? Are you monochronic? Are you polychronic? Lets give you a test to find out.Choose A or B as the action you would take or the way you would feel about the particular topic.
7A BPeople Should always stand in line so the can be waited on one at a timeThere is no need to stand in line as people will be waited on when they are ready for service
8A BInterruptions usually cannot be avoided and are often quite helpfulInterruptions should be avoided whenever possible
9A 3 B It is more efficient if you do one thing at a time I can get as much done if I work on two or three things at a time
10A BIt’s more important to come to an agreement even if it takes more timeIt’s more important to stick to the schedule
11A BUnexpected things are hard to adjust to and should be avoided where possibleUnexpected things happen all the time, that’s life.
12A BYou shouldn’t acknowledge a new visitor when you are still meeting with another personIt would be rude to ignore a visitor who drops by.
13A BYou shouldn’t take a deadline too seriously. Anything can happen. What is a deadline between friends?Deadlines are like a promise. Many other things depend on them, so they should not be treated lightly.
14A BIt is important in a meeting not to become distracted by something else that comes up. You should stick to the agenda.Distractions are inevitable. An agenda is just a piece of paper.
15A 9 B I tend to be People -Oriented I tend to be task-oriented and like to get the job done.
16A 10 B Personal talk is part of the Job. Personal talk should be saved for after business hours or during lunch.
18Individualism Collectivism Concept of SELFIndividualism Collectivism
19IndividualismIn individualist cultures, a person’s identity does not necessarily stem from his/her connection to or role in a groupTaking care of one’s self and being self sufficient is considered to be the way to contribute to the well-being of the group
20Individualism There is a strong value placed on being independent. Standing on one’s own two feet is considered importantSelf-reliance and individual responsibility are greatly stressed and valuedThe needs of the individual often take precedent over the needs of the group
21CollectivismIn Collectivist cultures, a person’s identity is a function of his/her connection to and role in a group (the family or work team)The survival and success of the group ensures the well-being of the the individual, so that by considering the needs and feelings of others, they protect themselves.
22CollectivismHarmony and the interdependence of group members are stressed and valued.Individuals protect group members from losing face.Group members are relatively close psychologically and emotionally, but distant between themselves and non-group members.