Fungsi kalimat, kesopanan dan komunikasi antar budaya (sumber Holmes Ch. 11) Pertemuan 12 Matakuliah: G0362/Sociolingustics Tahun: 2007
Bina Nusantara Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Mahasiswa dapat mengidentifikasikan fungsi-fungsi kalimat
Bina Nusantara Outline Materi Fungsi kalimat Komunikasi antar budaya Bentuk nama panggilan
Bina Nusantara The Functions of Speech There are several categories: –Expressive express the speaker’s feelings –Directive get someone to do something –Referential provide information –Metalinguistic comment on the language itself (e.g. ‘hegemony’ is not a common word) –Poetic focus on aesthetic feature of a language, e.g. a poem, a rhyme, etc. –Phatic express solidarity and emphaty
Bina Nusantara The categories are useful as guides for analysis but they are not mutually exclusive. For example, a love poem is poetic as well as expressive. An advertisement slogan can be poetic, directive, amusing and informative at the same time. –A Mars a day, helps you work, rest and play. –Beanz Buildz Kidz –Have a break, have a Kit Kat
Bina Nusantara Directives Directives are utterances that aim to get people do things. The speech acts* which express directive force vary in strength. Consider: Sit downImperative You sit downYou imperative Could you sit down?Interrogative with modal Sit down, will you?Interrogative with tag Won’t you sit down?Interrogative with negative modal I want you to sit down.declarative I’d like you to sit downdeclarative You’d be more comfortable sitting downdeclarative
Bina Nusantara Speech Acts Speech Acts (see supporting materials #2) deals with how utterances are structured and interpreted. An utterance has propositional meaning and illocutionary meaning. Propositional meaning is literal meaning, conveyed by the words and structure of the utterance Illocutionary meaning is the effect on the reader/hearer
Bina Nusantara Examples A teacher to a student: –“I hear talking.” –Proposition: the teacher hears talking –Illocutionary force: “Stop talking.” So, the sentence type and the function are different. “Fire!” –This means there is a fire and we should be out of here.
Bina Nusantara Politeness and Address Forms What you can say to another person depends on your status/power relationship with that person. It also depends very much on the culture of both the speaker and the interlocutor. –For example, in western country a grown up daughter can call her mother by her first name. In Indonesia, this would be rude. –In NZ (or in most western countries), university students can call their lecturers by their first names.
Bina Nusantara Polite choice of Address Forms What someone calls another person will follow the following flowchart: (Holmes, 2001:270)
Bina Nusantara Types of Politeness Positive Politeness –Is solidarity oriented. It is when, for example, your boss says to you that you can call him/her by his/her FN (First name) Negative Politeness –The opposite of above. That is when someone deliberately tells you to call him/her by TLN (Title Last Name)
Bina Nusantara Politeness in Different Cultures What you can ask someone in the first meeting depends on the culture of the person involved. Some cultures would consider someone to be rude when they ask personal questions to someone they just met. But to some others it may well be normal. Chinese and some other Asian would ask “have you eaten?” the moment the guest arrives at their home for a social call.
Bina Nusantara Conclusions Besides the four factors and dimensions mentioned in Chapter 1, what you can say to others also depends on the tone, intonation that you say the utterance, and how it is received by the hearer/reader. Address forms depend on the relationships between the speaker & hearer. It is also very cultural.