What is Sociolinguistics? Pertemuan 1 Matakuliah: G0362/Sociolingustics Tahun: 2007
Bina Nusantara Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menjelaskan apa yang dipelajari dalam Sosiolinguistik Menjelaskan faktor sosial yang mempengaruhi penggunaan bahasa Learning Outcomes 3
Bina Nusantara Definisi Sosiolinguistik Faktor Sosial dalam penggunaan bahasa Dimensi Sosial Penjelasan atas beberapa fenomena bahasa Outline Materi 4
Bina Nusantara What is covered in this course? What is sociolinguistics? What do sociolinguists study? Why does someone use one language instead of another? What are varieties? Can a language become extinct? What can we do to keep a language alive? Do men and women talk differently?
Bina Nusantara What is sociolinguistics? Sociolinguistics is a field of study that observes the use of language in the society. In Sociolinguistics, the object of study is the speakers, how they use the language, and what factors influence them to do so. In pure linguistics, the object of the study is the language alone, independent of the speakers and other social factors. Pure linguistics is about learning the grammar and how the language works.
Bina Nusantara Short Definition In short, we can say that Sociolinguists study Who speaks to whom, where, what about, and for what purpose –Who, whom the participants –Where the setting –What about the topic –What purpose the function
Bina Nusantara Social Factors What language people choose to speak in an exchange is determined by social factors: The Participants: e.g. age, ranks, relationships; The Setting: e.g. at home, in a formal meeting, etc. The Topic: e.g. my tennis skills, cooking, exams; The Function: e.g. getting a loan, hiring a maid, asking permission to leave the room, etc.
Bina Nusantara The Participants The person you speak to and the kind of relationship you have with the person determines your choice of –Terms of Address: Mr., Madam, Sir, Your Honor/ Majesty, Pak, Mbak, Mas, or just Memet –Language: formal/informal –Tone of voice or intonation
Bina Nusantara The Participants Discussion Task: How would you ask for some money to a.A bank teller? b.Your mother or father? c.Your brother (younger/older)? d.A good friend? e.A total stranger?
Bina Nusantara The Setting What we mean by settings are the contexts in which the language exchanges occur: –At school, university –At home –At a law court –In an inauguration ceremony, etc. The settings would dictate the use of language: formal or informal.
Bina Nusantara Topics The topic of a language exchange can be –A subject matter at a school (Maths, English) –A new computer game –Fashion –Mother’s cooking –Father’s new car, etc.
Bina Nusantara Function The function of a conversation is the reason why two people are speaking to each other at a given moment. e.g. to ask permission, to scold a naughty child, to carry out a wedding ceremony, etc.
Bina Nusantara Social Dimensions Within the social factors above, there are social dimensions: 1.Social Distance (solidarity) scale 2.Status scale 3.Formality scale 4.Functional scales: referential and affective
Bina Nusantara Solidarity scale: intimate ______________________ distant High solidarityLow solidarity (language is less formal) formal)
Bina Nusantara Status Scale Superior High status Subordinate Low status
Bina Nusantara Functional Scale Referential Low ________________________________high Affective The news on TV would be high in referential content but low in affective scale. A gossip will be highly affective but lowly referential.
Bina Nusantara Conclusions Sociolinguistics is a field of study that research on how language is used in the community. The way a person speak to another depends on some social factors (the participants, setting, topic, and function) and social dimensions (solidarity scale, status scale, formality scale, and functional scales).