Presentation on theme: "OPSM 405 Service Management Class 2: Introduction: Service encounters Koç University Zeynep Aksin"— Presentation transcript:
OPSM 405 Service Management Class 2: Introduction: Service encounters Koç University Zeynep Aksin
The service system Customer needs Service organization mission, strategies, policies Environment Operations Marketing Human resources Design of service package and delivery system Service delivery System Front room: Service providers Processes Equipment Line of visibility Back room: Personnel Processes Equipment Customers and/or customer assets Enhanced Customers and/or customer assets
Recall: Services and service processes (Lovelock) PEOPLE PROCESSING Passenger transportation Heart transplant Immunization Criminal justice system MENTAL STIMULUS PROCESSING Entertainment Education Art exhibit Concerts POSSESSION PROCESSING Repair and maintenance Dry cleaning Housecleaning Landscaping INFORMATION PROCESSING Internet services Banking Financial services Software development Inputs TANGIBLEINTANGIBLE CUSTOMER ASSETS
Service encounters Customer’s contacts with the service organization where her body, mind, assets, or information are processed
Service encounter or moment of truth Any episode in which the customer comes into contact with any aspect of the organization and gets an impression of the quality of its service. (K. Albrecht)
Jan Carlzon as president of SAS Last year each of our 10 million customers came into contact with approximately five SAS employees, and this contact lasted an average of 15 seconds each time. Thus SAS is created in the minds of our customers 50 million times a year, 15 seconds at a time. These 50 million moments of truth are the moments that ultimately determine whether SAS will succeed or fail as a company. These are the moments when we must prove to our customers that SAS is their best alternative.
What does this mean? Service encounters: any place any time –Entering facility, asking for directions, filling a form etc. –Watching ads, hearing people talk about the service, etc. Contact person/thing = organization –Rude service employee = rude organization –Employee late for visit = unreliable organization –Etc.
Going to a rock concert ( Haksever et al. ) 1.Music lover sees ad of a concert in newspaper 2.Calls arena for price, schedule, and directions; gets information from recording 3.Calls another number to reserve ticket with credit card 4.Local TV news shows rock group arrival in town 5.Day of the concert she drives to arena, sees banners of the group at the entrance 6.Security personnel direct her to entranceof parking lot 7.She pays for parking and parks her car 8.She arrives at ticket window where she picks up her reserved ticket 9.At the entrance she sees security personnel and a crowd 10.She gives her ticket and goes in 11.She buys a T-shirt 12.She buys some beer from a concession stand 13.She receives help from an usher to find her seat 14.She enjoys the concert
More generally Service encounters may be simple or complex processes Consist of a series of episodes Occur with multiple facets of an organization May occur with other organizations associated with service provision
Characteristics of human interaction Service encounters are purposeful or goal oriented Service providers are not altruistic, the encounter is work for them Prior acquaintance is not required Encounters are limited in scope: not much time spent on nontask issues task-related information exchange dominates Client and provider roles well defined Temporary status differential may occur
Service encounter as a social encounter Human contact Greeting, courtesy Small talk Task related interaction Expectation of fairness
Service encounter as an economic exchange Service organization gives up –Labor –Skill –Technology –Information Customer sacrifices –Time –Money –Labor
Service encounter as a production process Resources transformed into satisfaction and benefits for the customer Customer resources may also be used
Service encounter as a contractual relationship Customer hires service organization to perform service Delegates some authority to service provider Or partial employment –Service organization makes use of customer labor –Eg. Salad bar: Customer is “paid” through lower salad/ food prices
Elements of a service encounter: customer Minimum requirement: courtesy, respect, fairness For people processing systems: safety, comfort, overall well-being Asset processing systems: focus on efficiency, customer convenience, minimize time and effort spent for service by customer Co-production: clear instructions, good equipment
Elements of a service encounter: service provider Service provider is also human: –expects courtesy and respect, –needs to have required knowledge and training Boundary spanners between firm and customer What is a single encounter for the customer may be one of many for provider –Understanding customer, empathy, warmth, friendliness –Suppress own feelings Quality control implies finding the right employees and making them happy
Elements of a service encounter: delivery system Consists of equipment, supplies, processes, programs, procedures, rules, regulations, organizational culture Design front office parts with customer needs in mind Design back office parts with most efficient support of front office parts in mind Focus on the core service
Elements of a service encounter: physical evidence All tangible aspects of a service organization that a customer experiences: facility, forms, employee dresses, etc. “Servicescape”: physical facility in which service is consumed Important for people-processing services Relationship between servicescape and customer behavior Relationship between servicescape and employee morale and satisfaction
The service value chain internal quality employee satisfaction employee loyalty employee productivity Value customer satisfaction customer loyalty $ $ $ Euro $ $ $ YTL
The Value Profit Chain Direct and strong links between: –Profit –Growth –Customer Loyalty –Customer Satisfaction –Value of goods/services to customer –Employee capability, satisfaction, loyalty and productivity
The Value Profit Chain - Sasser Customer Loyalty –Conventional theory is that share of market is the primary driver of profitability –Sasser’s research found customer loyalty was more frequently associated with high profits and rapid growth.
The Value Profit Chain - Schlesinger Determinants of employee and customer loyalty –cycle of failure - low wages, little training, => limited customer loyalty, high turnover –cycle of capability - share of profits, greater control, => highly productive employees, satisfied customers
What is the learning? Service driven service: the link between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction well aligned resources: HR, IT, processes what makes boundary spanning employees happy? resources to give good service happy customers remuneration and working conditions Customer centric view all details matter Short encounters may determine everything