Presentation on theme: "AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION"— Presentation transcript:
1AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION In Othaya, KenyaBy Brett Promisloff & Alayna Blalock
2Subsistence Crops specific to Othaya, the Nyeri South District, and Nyeri Most farmers are subsistence farmersAlmost every homestead in the Nyeri South District has at least one or two exotic cattle for personal/family use. (Source: Future Ag research paper)
3Tea Requirements: Red loam mixed with volcanic soils Drained within 2m depth and PH betweenThrives with rainfall from 1,200mm to 2,500mm annually, preferably with long/sunny intervals.Temperatures degrees Celsius.Typically 2 harvests per year (“first flush” and “second flush”)Chinga Tea Factory Co Ltd. (Othaya):Tea first grown in region in 1953; factory built in 19634,683 growersGrow stump/clonal teas
4Coffee Species: Arabica Optimal Arabica Growing Climate Harvest Season (generally in Kenya): October through January (rainy period)Can be a month ahead or behind depending on climate and El Niño forceAbility to be intercropped with other horticultural cropsMostly produced by small farmersDeclining marketTransparency of the market: producers are not guaranteed a profitPolitical interference in market: cause of decline?Coffee co-op in Othaya: Othaya Farmers Cooperative Society LtdMembership: 14,000Production Capacity (total kg): 2,940,000Factories: 19Staff No.: 101(Source: Kenya Coffee Producers Association)
5Coffee cont… Coffee Knowledge Base: Varieties in Kenya Coffee Geography and Climate in KenyaKenya in general prides itself on the quality of coffee they produce: “Kenyan producers place an emphasis on quality and as a result, processing and drying procedures are carefully controlled and monitored. Kenya has its own unique grading system. Kenyan AA is the largest bean in a 10-size grading system and AA+ means that it was estate grown” (National Coffee Association of U.S.A., Inc.).
6Dairy Othaya Dairy Cooperative Society: Established in 1964 1,386 active members operating in three dairies with 200 collection sites in the regionReceives a lot of morning milk deliveries for the area and acts as the link between farmers and milk processorsBuys milk at Ksh.27 per liter and sells it at Ksh with the margin used to run the societyUsed profit to create program in the “farm input department” which allows the society to give farmers input on the basis of how much milk they supplyDiscourages sales directly to the New Kenya Cooperative Creameries (KCC) or any other brokers due to a history of mismanagement and fraudThe dairy boasts nearly 100% allegiance from participants.
7Goats In Othaya: Keeping of dairy goats gaining popularity in region, but little know-howSuch a new phenomenon there is currently no, or very small, market for goat milk“The agricultural officers still have to do a lot of sensitization to bring more farmers on board and also create a market for the product.”General Benefits:Goats need less space than cowsMilk is highly nutritiousThis is an activity that women traditionally undertake
8Other Ag Ventures Piggeries: Some farmers have learned how to manage pigsin Nyeri South District (exact numbers unknown)Ready markey available, including a sausage manufacturing companies in Thika, KenyaThika is about 1.5 hrs from OthayaHorticulture & GreenhousesLand fragmentation has caused people in the region to focus on high intensive farming; minimum land, maximum use
9BeekeepingDue to land fragmentation, drought and soil degredation, tea production has been on the fall in recent years but often the government intervenes and won’t allow people to tear up their tea fieldsThis is because it’s a cash crop that brings in tax revenue In order to supplement their income many farmers have been adding beekeeping to their farms since it takes up little space but can be highly productive.“So far, at least 6,000 tea farmers at Iriaini Tea Factory have already acquired hundreds of beehives to diversify their income. The farmers have acquired a 150-acre piece of land in Nyeri town, where they plan to erect 12,000 bee hives in three years. Through the bee project, introduced by Fair Trade Company — also the marketers of Iriaini Tea factory — the farmers hope to raise 288,000 kilos of honey annually.”expect to sell it at Sh500 per kiloIriana located in Nyeri
10Rabbit KeepingMinistry of Livestock recently held a “field day” in the district to conduct studies on the acceptance of rabbit meatThere was good attendance and everyone was able to try itTaste of meat was well acceptedNumber of farmers keeping rabbits is rapidly growing, but still not keeping up with demandRabbit Farming Networks beginning to pop up across KenyaRabbit Farming won funding from the 2009 Africa Rural Connect CompetitionFrom:
11Problems & Challenges facing Agricultural Production Population has put pressure on the remaining arable land left in the area. The average household owns about .64ha2 of land. Moreover, no one is willing to sell land anymore (Source: Future Ag research paper)High cost of capitalLand fragmentationSoil fertilityYouth opinionsPesticide useOther farmer challengesFarmer ignorance and low technology uptakesHigh cost of inputsCooperative mismanagment (like in coffee)Lack of sanitary informationDelayed supply of inputs
12From: Chinsinga, Blessings From: Chinsinga, Blessings. “The Role and Performance of Ministry of Agriculture in Nyeri South District”
13ResourcesWayama, M., L. O. Mose, M. Odendo, J. O. Okuro, and J. O. Owuor. "Determinants of income diversification strategies amongst rural households in maize based farming systems of Kenya." African Journal of Food Science 4.12 Jan. (2010): CABdirect. Web. 11 Feb <http://www.academicjournals.org/ajfs/PDF/Pdf2010/Dec/Wanyama%20et%20al.pdf>. Chinsinga, Blessings. “The Role and Performance of Ministry of Agriculture in Nyeri South District.” Future Agriculture Consortium. Web. 27 Jan 2011 Kenya Coffee Producers Association. "Othaya Farmers Cooperative Society Ltd | KCPA." KCPA | Working for a Fair Return on Investment for Kenyan Coffee Farmers. Web. 28 Jan <http://www.kcpa.or.ke/node/48>. Coffee Research Institute. "Coffee Environment: Climate Conditions for Growing Coffee Beans." Coffee - CoffeeResearch.org. Web. 10 Feb <http://www.coffeeresearch.org/agriculture/environment.htm>. Moledina Commodities Inc. "Our Coffees - Kenya." Moledina Commodities Inc. Web. 10 Feb <http://www.moledina.com/cof_kenya.htm>. Lost Dutchman Coffee Co. "Green Coffee Harvest Table." Lost Dutchman Coffee. Web. 10 Feb <http://www.lostdutchmancoffee.com/info/sub_categories/coffee harvest.htm>. National Coffee Association of the U.S.A., Inc. "Coffee From Around The World - National Coffee Association." Home - National Coffee Association. Web. 10 Feb <http://www.ncausa.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=75>. Wachira Waikwa, Stephen. "Farmers on the Treadmill." Pesticide News Mar. 1999, 43rd ed.: Print. Article Available online at:Kenya Tea Development Agency Ltd ( KTDA). “Tea Growing Conditions and Husbandry Management.” Web. 28 Jan <http://www.ktdateas.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=30&Itemid=89>