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CHEM. 162 TEST #1 REVIEW H o f -lattice E, fig 8.5, pg. 295 steps formation LiF set up equations for each step Calculate & properly place formal charge on molecular structures Chemical Bond Types - describe ionic, covalent, metallic Lewis -- VSEPR dot structure electronic structure molecular geometry lone pair bond angle H calculations bond energies Trends Electronegativity bond polarity Bond Length Bond Strength Bond Energy Bond Order Melting/Boiling Pt # of bonds formed octet rule endo - reactant, e- transfer break bonds, lose e-, BE > 0 exo - pdt, gain e-, form bonds, ionic solid form, BE < 0 dist / speed (de)localized e-

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CHEM. 162 Ch.13 TEST REVIEW EQUATIONS T f / b = K f / b*m*i S gas = K H* P O gas P soln = ( X * P )solvent Various Concentration M = mol solute / L soln m = mol solute / Kg solvent X = mol solute / mol soln soln = solute + solvent Ch. 13 CONCEPTS S, Entropy- Henry’s Law - gas solubility Raoult’s Law - vp of solns Solvation Process Colligative Properties decr vp, incr bp, decr fp van’t Hoff Effect Solubility & Factors to Consider: intermolecular forces ion-dipole H-bonding dipole-dipole dispersion Basic Principles

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CHEM. 162 Ch.14 TEST REVIEW Ch. 14 CONCEPTS RXN - rate, expression, constant, order, law Integrated, Half-lifes Arrhenius Eqn, Activation E a ; graph Factors Influence Rate Rate - instantaneous, initial, average; graph RXN Mechanisms RDS, rate law, molecularity Catalyst - effect, nature Diagrams - draw, label parts endo / exo, catalyst, multistep Transition State, Activated Complex CALCULATIONS Various Rates Half-life Activation E a Orders “Labels”

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CHEM. 162 Ch.15 TEST REVIEW EQUILIBRIUM >Calculate, Kc / Kp >Calculations based on [ ] / P; I.C.E. Tables >Direction RXN QUOTIENT, Qc >Calculate Q >Compare K - Q Le CHÂTELIER’S PRINCIPLE > to System >Direction of Rxn Reversible Rxn Interpret Graphs Interpret Rxn; of coefficients PV = nRT K p = K c (RT) ngas Past Review Problems Freezing/Boiling Pt Mole Fraction Gas Solubility/Pressure Kinetics

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CHEM 162 Ch.11 Test Review Clausius-Claperyron; calculations Ln P = (- H / R)(1 / T) EQUILIBRA gas -------> liq condensation (exo) (endo) vaporization <------- liq --------> solid freezing (exo) (endo; fusion) melting <------- COOLING CURVE; H calculations INTERMOLECULAR FORCES ion-dipole dipole-dipole dispersion hydrogen bonding bond type; bp/mp higher/lower hydrogen bonding examples q = n*C PHASE * T & q = n* H

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CHEM. 162 FINAL TEST REVIEW EQUATIONS T f / b = K f / b*m*i S gas = K H* P O gas P soln = ( X * P )solvent Various Concentration M = mol solute / L soln m = mol solute / Kg solvent X = mol solute / mol soln soln = solute + solvent Models – Dot structures, geometry, atoms/molecules CONCEPTS Freezing / Boiling Pts pure liquid, solns, van’t Hoff Concentraton: molarity, molality, %, ppb, ppm Vapor Pressure Rate, Rate Law, Rate Constant, Rate Order, Activation Energy, Half-Live Equilibrium Constant, Expression, Le Chatelier

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Use past chapter reviews as guide for FINAL To better focus on your final, I have narrowed some of the things you will need to concentrate on. Your test may not incorporate all the concepts listed, also, the test for Wednesday may be different than Monday. Equations to Think About Henry (gas solubility) / Raoult (vapor pressure) Laws Molarity, molality, mole fraction(mass%) Arrhenius Eqn Activation E / Clausius-Clapeyron Rate constant, rate expression, rxn order, overall order Rates, instantaneous-change-initial Integrated rate laws / Half-lives, 0-1 st -2 nd orders Equilibrium constant, Equilib expression, Rxn quotient H enthalpy calculations(fusion, vaporization), solid, liquid, gas phases Freezing / Boiling point determinations, van’t Hoff factor

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