Presentation on theme: "Digital Testing: Current Testing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Digital Testing: Current Testing 4/13/2017Based on text by S. Mourad "Priciples of Electronic Systems"
2 Problem 1a) Use Boolean difference to find all tests for E s-a-1 and Es-a-0 fault.b) Find all tests that distinguish between E s-a-0 and D s-a-1 faults.
3 Problem 2For the circuit shown compute the combinational controllability and observability in all the signal lines. Use the following notation (CC0,CC1)CO to indicate your results. For instance, if the signal x1 has CC0=1, CC1=1 and CO=5, write (1,1)5 next to the signal name on the figure. Make sure that you consider all signals (including the branch signals a,b,c,d,e, and f).
4 Problem 3Use the critical signal approach to detect C s-a-1 fault. What other faults can you detect using this run of the critical signal setting? Hint: start with the output signal Y = 1.ABCDEFGH Y
5 Problem 4Use D-algorithm to find test vector for s-a-0 fault on the fanout branch h in the circuit shown.
6 Copyrights(c) 2001, Samiha Mourad OutlineWhy current testingEffect on propagation delaysMeasurement of currentTest pattern generationSubthreshold currentEffect of deep submicronFromFab. 2, 2001Copyrights(c) 2001, Samiha Mourad
7 MotivationEarly 1990’s – Fabrication Line had 50 to 1000 defects per million chipsConventional way to reduce defects:Increasing test fault coverageIncreasing burn-in coverageIncrease Electro-Static Damage awarenessNew way to reduce defects:IDDQ Testing – also useful for Failure Effect Analysis
8 What is Current Testing? Also called IDDQ TestingMeasurement of the supply, VDD,quiescent currentthe sum of all off-state transistorsUseful only for CMOS circuitsLimitation due to shrinking technology
9 Basic Principle of IDDQ Testing Measure IDDQ current through Vss bus
10 Current Testing Basics CMOS circuits operate with normally negligible static current (power)But, a defect that causes an appreciable static current can be detected by measuring the supply current, IDDQTechnique used since inception of CMOS technologyLimitation due to shrinking technology
11 IDDQ Testing IDD --- Current flow through VDD Q --- Quiescent state IDDQ Testing --- Detecting faults by monitoring IDDQVDDIDDInputsCMOScircuitOutputsIn general a CMOS circuit consumes very small steady state current.Many CMOS faults result in large IDDQ , typically ranged from tens of mA to mA.Normal IDDQ: ~10-9Amp.Abnormal IDDQ: >10-5Amp.
12 Advantages of IDDQ Testing Fault effect is easy to detectMany realistic faults are detectableATPG is relatively simpleTest length is shorterBuilt-in current sensing is possibleLarge difference between faulty and fault free circuit.Faults detectable include bridging, break, transistor stuck-on, gate-oxide short, latch-up , etc..No fault propagation is needed.Many built-in current sensors have been developed.
13 IDDQ Distribution (Md - Mg) should be an easily measurable quantity Mg FrequencyGoodDefectiveMgMdIDDQ(Md - Mg) should be an easily measurable quantity
14 How Does it Work? Apply a test pattern Wait for the transient to settle downMeasure the currentNeeded:How to generate the patternsHow to measure the currentBut, first current characteristics
19 IDDQ Measurement Measurement may interfere with the measured current A successful measurement should be:easily placed between the CUT and the bypass Capacitor of the power pinCapable of measuring small currentsNon intrusive, no drop of VDDFast measurement few ns per patternTwo types: on- and off-chip
20 External MeasurementProblem: CUT sensitive to power supply drop on R
21 Current Sensing Structures PowerSupplyCUTR( a )( b )Sense amplifiers designedto minimize the VDDvoltage dropShunting by diode limitsthe voltage drop to 0.7VAnother option is to use pass transistor
22 Internal Measurement I IC V When large IDDQ exists, V>VR and Fail flag is set.VDD-GND ShortsBridging FaultsGate oxidepinholesFloating gates &junction leakagesNo defectVGNDIrefNodefectDefect(b)DUTV.dropComparatorICdd(a)
23 BICS Based on Bipolar Transistor CMOSModuleVDD+ -GNDIVVRPass/FailFlagVRVDDf1f2CMOSModuleVirtualGroundSwitching circuitVVFaultcategoriesThe switching circuit may switch off a faulty module to prevent large power consumptionThe first design for BICS.The sensing device is a bipolar transistor which has the property that when I is small, dV/dI is large, hence can give good current resolution. When I is large, dV/dI is small, then V is limited.The basic idea is to compare the voltage drop on the bipolar transistor with a reference voltage VR and use a differential amplifier to provide the error indication.When an excess current exists, the Pass/Fail flag is set, and the switching circuit will turn off the bipolar transistor to prevent further current consumption.Bipolar or lateral NPN process is needed.
24 Analysis of a Short Consider p-MOS with input B stuck-on (B s/0) Transistor is always onFor the shorted pMOS transistor, find:a path form VDD to GND through this transistor, thenAB = 11 is needed to detect this short using IDDQ
25 Detecting Short Faults To detect leakage between gate and source B set A=0 and C=1To detect leakage between gate and drain B set A=1 and C=0
26 Test Pattern Generation (TPG) Mainly two methods:based on switch level using graph representation as for layoutbased on leakage fault models
27 Graph or Switch Based TPG Path A,A,B to test shorts on A transistorsPath B,A,B to test shorts on B transistors
28 Leakage Fault Model pMOS model sgdgbdsdbsbgAssuming all possible shorts between the four nodes, bulk, source, gate, and drain results in 6 tuples of faults (bg bd bs ds gd gs )Consider various I/O patternsOnly correct logic signal values are used for leakage models. Some I/O combinations are impossible for a given logic, for instance 00, 11The 6 tuples are represented by octal numbers as shown in column N of the tableFor instance for I/O=10 transistorfault code is N=438=100011and represents the following faults:bg, gd, gsIO bg bd bs ds gd gs Nn y n n y n 22y n n n y y 43pMOS model
29 Characterizing a NANDThe leakage fault model notation is used to characterizea 2-input NANDOctal fault vector codefor each transistorI/O octal code, eg.:6=110=>A=1,B=1,O=0
31 IDDQ Vector SelectionCharacterize each logic component using switch-level simulation – relate input/output logic values & internal states to:leakage fault detectionweak fault sensitization and propagationStore information in leakage and weak fault tablesGenerate complete stuck-at fault testsLogic simulate stuck-at fault tests – use tables to find faults detected by each vector to select vectors for current measurement
32 Impact of Deep Submicron Deep submicron transistors work at lower VtThe lower Vt the higher IDDQThe discrepancy between the faulty and non-faulty IDDQ is narrowing
33 Controlling leakage IDDQ Reverse biasing the substrateCooling the devicesUsing dual threshold voltagePartitioning the circuit to manageable IDDQ
34 Change of Current with Body Bias and Temperature
35 Stuck-open Faults To test a/1 use vectors A stuck open transistor is always offA B C D OutT1 =T2 = ?ADxByCOutWhen T2 is applied (and transistor A is open), charge sharing among x, y and Out occurs, and logic state is undetermined.Yet the following inverter will draw a significant current and IDDQ detects this fault.ATo detect A stuck-open , we need two vectors, the first one setting output o to logic 0 and the second one trying to set up a conducting path that must go though A such that in the fault-free circuit , o become 1 and in the faulty circuit o retains o.T1 and T2 are two vectors that satisfy the above condition. However it is possible that due to charge sharing the voltage value at o become an intermediate voltage in the faulty circuit and hence logic testing can not detect this fault.Fortunately if IDDQ testing is available, this fault can still be detected.BCD
36 Other Faults Detectable by IDDQ Gate-oxide shortMost stuck-at faultsLatch-upDelay faultsAny other fault due to extra conductor, missing isolating layer, excess well/substrate leakage, etc.Many delay faults can be detected by IDDQ testing because a circuit with a delay fault may imply that some transitions still exist in the circuit during steady state.
37 Circuit ConstraintsTo ensure IDDQ detectability, two conditions must be satisfied:1. Normal IDDQ must be small2. Faults must result in large IDDQThough many faults are IDDQ detectable, we still have to be very carefully when employing this method.In the following, several examples indicating the problems are given.
38 A Good Circuit that may be Problem due to high impedance node identified as Faultyx=11?z=x0?1MUXOutputSel=0 if AB=10A=011B=110large currentDue to some don't care terms in the function to be designed , a designer may consider the circuit to be correct. However leakage current may occur during normal operation.When the third pattern AB=10 is applied, change sharing between x, z occurs, and a large current may exist in the inverter. However the output is still correct.Problem due to high impedance node
39 that cannot be Detected by IDDQ Problem due to feedback loop A bridging fault (BF)that cannot be Detected by IDDQFaxby1To detect BF (x, y), different logic values must be applied to x and y, respectively.Due to the self control loop, either x dominates y or y dominates x. Eventually either (x, y)=(1, 1) or (x, y)= (0,0).=1: a=0, b=1=1: Eventually x=y (and will set to full VDD or GND value as onesignal will dominate), no big currentProblem due to feedback loop
40 Problems with Dynamic Logic foafOpxInputsyfbLeft side is a typical domino logic gate with a precharge input f.During the evaluation phase, if the precharge node is not connected to ground, then it should retain at 1. However due to charge sharing, it can become an intermediate voltage and hence large current may occur in the inverter.A BF(x, y) inside the n-block is not IDDQ testable because they can never be connected to VDD and Ground simultaneously.Similarly if x is in one n-block and y is in another, the BF(x, y) is not IDDQ testable.A BF between the output of two inverter such as (a, b) in the right figure is IDDQ detectable. However if another undetectable BF(o, p) exists then the fault detection may be invalidated.Problems: 1. Large current in normal circuits due to charge sharing 2. Very few faults are detected because of the precharge property (no direct path VDD-GND) 3. Fault masking of BF(a, b) due to BF(o, p)
41 Transistor GroupG3OutputG2Transistor group (TG) --- "Channel-connected component"Connections between two TGs are unidirectional Control direction or loop can be definedABG1From the above examples, it becomes clear that one must be very careful when using IDDQ testing.A set of design & test rules for IDDQ testing was derived by Lee & Breure in T-CAD'92. To understand these rules, an important concept called transistor grouping must be introduced first.A transistor group is a set of transistors whose channels are connected through drain or source without passing though VDD or GND.After partitioning, the I/O between TGs can be defined by their gate terminal connections, e.g., G2 is an input to G3 and G1 is an input to G2.Through these I/O relationship, control direction or loop can be defined.The concept of TG is widely used in switch level analysis of CMOS circuits.CED
42 A Minimum Set of Design & Test Rule for IDDQ Testing A1. Gate and drain (or source) nodes of a transistor are not in the same TG.A2. No conducting path exists from VDD to GND during steady state.A3. Each output of a TG is connected to VDD or GND during steady state.A4. No control loops among TGs exist.A5. The bulk (or well) of an n-(p-)type transistor is connected to GND (VDD).A6. During testing, each PI is controlled by a monitored power source.A1 is used to prevent "self control".A5 is used to prevent "anomalous reverse conducting" effect. See Rajsuman DAC'87 for details.A6 is because a current sensor usually only monitors the VDD line or GND line , but not both. Hence a large current through PI may flow through a power line that is not monitored.
43 Results of Design & Test Rules Theorem 1: All irredundant single BFs in a circuit satisfying A1-A6 can be detected using IDDQ testing.Theorem 2: For a circuit satisfying A1-A6, a test detecting a single BF f also detects all multiple BFs that contain f.Theorem 3: If any one of A1-A6 is removed, then circuits exist for which IDDQ testing cannot give correct test results.Strategies for dealing with circuits not satisfying each rule are required to ensure IDDQ detectability.The three theorems are self-explanary.It must be pointed out that the set of rules is sufficient, but not necessary. This is because one may have a circuit that does not satisfy some rule, but is still IDDQ testable, e.g., a cross coupled 6-transistor XOR gate.The set of rules is minimum in the sense that if any of the rules is removed, then problems exist for some circuits, not for all circuit.
44 Fault Simulation in IDDQ 1. Fault models --- Bridging, break, stuck-open, stuck-at ?2. Fault list generation --- need inductive fault analysis3. Fault coverage ?4. Easy for bridging and stuck-on faults5. Difficult for break and stuck-open faults6. Stuck-at faults may or may not be modeled as short to VDD or GNDThe conventional fault coverage concept based on single stuck at faults may need some modifications---IFA is important.Break detection is an important but difficult research topic.
45 Fault simulation for BFs If A1-A6 are satisfied, then fault simulation is quite simple1. Perform a good circuit simulation for the given test pattern.2. Any BF between a node with logic 1 and a node with logic 0 is detected.No simulation on faulty circuit is needed.No fault list enumeration is needed.One test vector divides the circuit nodes into two sets, one with logic 1 and the other with logic 0. Any fault between two nodes in different sets is detected. Two test vectors divide the circuit nodes into 4 sets with logic values of 00, 01, 10, 11, respectively. A BF between nodes from any two different sets is detected. Therefore if a test set can distinguish all circuit nodes, the all BFs are detected. => No fault list enumeration is needed.
46 Test Generation1. Conventional test generation for stuck-at faults can be modified to detect BFs.2. No fault propagation.3. Must make sure the faults result in a conducting path between VDD and GND Switch level test generation may be necessary.4. Break and stuck-open faults are difficult to detect.self-explanary
47 Test generator for bridging faults Again, assume A1-A6 are satisfied1. For the bridging fault BF (a, b) to be detected, add an XOR gate with its inputs connected to a and b.2. The test generator work is simply to set the output of the XOR gate to 1.No Fault propagation.self-explanary
48 Current monitoring Techniques ATEATECurrent SupplyMonitorBICSDUTDUTCUTThe most important work in IDDQ testing may be the design of current sensors. There exist three methods.ExternalmonitoringTestFixtureBuilt-InCurrent Sensor
49 External Devices Transistor conducts in normal mode and TEST POWER SUPPLYS (STROBE)NCNIDDDUTVSS pinVDD pinVDDRMTransistor conducts innormal mode andis open in test modeDuring normal mode, S turns on the transistor.During test mode, the transistor is off and all current flows through RM. Hence by measuring the voltage drop on RM, the fault effect can be identified.Current resolution is limited because the current of the whole chip must be measured.Existing ATE may have no current sensing capability.Current measurement is usually slow.Mixed-type circuits such as BiCMOS are not easy to applied because Bipolar and CMOS consume different ranges of steady state current.Problems:1. Current resolution is limited Test equipment must be modified Current cannot be measured at the full speed of the tester Cannot partition circuit.
50 Built-in Current Sensors (BICSs) VDDBICSCUTTestPass/FailVDDInputsOutputsInputsCUTOutputsORTestBICSPass /FailA BICS can be placed at the VDD line or GND line.Sometimes called ISSQ testing
51 BICS Based on Logic Threshold Favalli (JSSC-90)Pull- upPull- downMTtGndMTDtoutVDDinputs...Normal : t = 1Test : t = 0For correct operationNo path to VDD fromgates of MTD transistorstout = 1 if no fault= 0 if fault existsTwo transistors are added to each logic gate. Hence overhead is large.
52 Improvement on Favalli's design Pull- upPull- downMTMTDGndtoutVDDinputs...tMerge all MT and MTD respectivelyThough the number of transistors is reduced, the total area overhead may not be saved as much because the same current supply (or sink) capacity is required.
54 BICS Based on Dual Power Supply & Operational Amplifier VDD'=5VRSIRS-VirtualShortI-+Vout+Vout-I+VDD=3VIDDVSSVin=3VThreshold detectorCUTVDD is provided by the OP amplifier which is powered by a higher level.The current through Rs is equal to IDD.VDD=Vin, hence very low performance degradation can be achieved.Fault indicationVirtual short VDD~VinInfinite input impedance of OPI-=0 and IRS=IDD
55 BICS Based on Current Conveyor IzVirtualShortCurrent ConveyorIyV'DD=5VThresholdDetectorIxVDDFail/PassCUTThe current conveyor conveys Ix to Iy for fault effect identification.Virtual short VDD ~ VDD'Current Conveying Iy ~ Ix
56 Advantages of Built-In Current Sensors (BICS) Higher test rate compared to external devicesEasier to partition circuitsEasier to control current resolutionSuitable for mixed-mode circuitsBuilt-In self test capability achievableLower test equipment costOn-Line testing possibleself-explanary
57 Disadvantages of BICS Impact on circuit performance Reliability of itselfArea overheadPower consumptionA BICS may cause extra circuit delay due to the reduced VDD level.If a BICS is faulty, then the whole circuit may crash.Large power consumption due to analog design such as op and differential amp, etc.
58 HP and Sandia Lab DataHP – static CMOS standard cell, 8577 gates, 436 FFSandia Laboratories – 5000 static RAM testsReject ratio (%) for various tests:Reject ratio (%)CompanyHPSandiaNoTest16.460.80OnlyFunct.6.360.09OnlyScan6.040.11IDDQWithout IDDQWith IDDQBoth5.800.00Functional Tests5.562
61 Sematech ConclusionsHard to find point differentiating good and bad devices for IDDQ & delay testsHigh # passed functional test, failed all othersHigh # passed all tests, failed IDDQ > 5 mALarge # passed stuck-at and functional testsFailed delay & IDDQ testsLarge # failed stuck-at & delay testsPassed IDDQ & functional testsDelay test caught failures in chips at higher temperature burn-in – chips passed at lower temperature
62 Current Limit Setting Should try to get it < 1 mA Histogram for 32 bit microprocessor
63 Delta IDDQ Testing (Thibeault) Use derivative of IDDQ at test vector i as current signatureΔIDDQ (i) = IDDQ (i) – IDDQ (i – 1)Leads to a narrower histogramEliminates variation between chips and between wafersSelect decision threshold Δdef to minimize probability of false test decisions
65 Setting Threshold IDDQ ΔIDDQ Mean (good chips) 0.696 μA -2×10-4 μA Mean (bad chips)1.096 μA0.4 μAVariance0.039 (μA)20.004 (μA)2ΔdefError Prob.0.30.0597.3×10-40.40.0324.4×10-50.50.0171.7×10-6
66 Summary IDDQ test is used as a reliability screen Can be a possible replacement for expensive burn-in testIDDQ test method has difficulties in testing of sub-micron devicesGreater leakage currents of MOSFETsHarder to discriminate elevated IDDQ from 100,000 transistor leakage currentsΔIDDQ test may be a better choiceBuilt-in current (BIC) sensors can be useful