Presentation on theme: "Argument Constructs Presumption: Lies in existing beliefs, values, or actions, which are taken for granted. Burden of proof: The responsibility to prove."— Presentation transcript:
Argument Constructs Presumption: Lies in existing beliefs, values, or actions, which are taken for granted. Burden of proof: The responsibility to prove the need for change in beliefs, values, or actions.
Models of Presumption Legislative model. Passing new law requires burden of proof. Legal model. The accused is presumed innocent.
Prima Facie Case A prima facie case. The threshold which an advocate must reach to meet the burden of proof. Stock issues. The set of questions a reasonable person would need answered to make a decision.
The Debate Proposition Proposition—the ultimate claim. “The California legislature should require the spaying or neutering of domestic cats within incorporated areas.” Functions of the proposition: Identify the specific subject area. Clarify the advocate’s role. Limit the boundaries of debate.
Characteristics The proposition must be debatable. Not: “The state could require that domestic cats be spayed or neutered.” It must be in appropriate form. Not: “Should domestic cats be neutered and adopted from shelters?” The language should be neutral. Not: “Animal shelters should not be allowed to murder cats.”
Stock Issues of Policy “Ill” or harms that are being done. Extent and seriousness of problem. “Blame” or cause of problem. Inherence in the status quo. “Cure” or proposal to change system. Solution must be able to solve problem. “Benefits” or the advantages of plan. Effects of plan must be desirable.
Roles for Policy Debate Constructive Speeches. 1st Advocate: Define terms and develop a case for need to change (ills & blame). 1st Opponent: Dispute blame and/or show that the ills are not significant or do not exist. 2nd Advocate: Rebuild need for change and develop details of cure and benefits. 2nd Opponent: Reestablish attack on problem and undermine cure & benefits. Show harmful effects. Rebuttal Speeches: Rebuild cases & attacks.
Outline of Policy Issues Proposition of policy. “Drinking age should be raised to 24.” Organization of case: “Ill”—Youth drinking causes death. “Blame”—Early 20’s are too immature. “Cure”—Phase in 24-year-old drinking. “Benefit”—Fewer deaths at little cost.
Order and Timing of Debate Constructive Speeches: Adv 1: 5 min. (definitions, ills & blame) Opp 1: 5 min. (dispute ills & blame) Adv 2: 5 min. (cure & benefits) Opp 2: 5 min. (dispute cure & benefits) Rebuttal Speeches: Opp 1: 3 min. (reestablish attacks on ills, etc.) Adv 1: 3 min. (rebuild ills & blame) Opp 2: 3 min. (show how case won’t stand) Adv 2: 3 min. (summarize & rebuild case)
Debate Outline is Required Each person should prepare an outline of his or her part of the debate content. Claims stated in full sentences. Support indented below claims. Cite sources of information in body. Include extra evidence for rebuttal. Provide a bibliography.
Evaluation of Debate Oral component – group grade: Same criteria as earlier presentation. Total points possible is 50 (10 X 5 pts). Outlines – individual score. Criteria: Quality of analysis, evidence, reasoning & organization. Total points is 50.
Supporting & Refuting Points Emphasize claims with previews, vocal intensity, repetition, and transitional phrases. State the sources of your supporting materials. "Mr. Smith, a former INS agent in San Diego..." Briefly summarize the argument you wish to refute before you attack it. After refuting an argument, show how your attack weakens the case.
General Refutation Strategies Question, test, or counter evidence & reasoning. D ispute definitions. Challenge or reorder values & criteria. Use denial or question probability of claims. Employ extenuation (circumstances are misunderstood).
Policy Refutation Strategies Challenge extent or significance of ills. Challenge blame. (System is not the cause or problem is temporary.) Question cure (feasibility & circumvention) or s uggest minor repairs of present policy. Challenge the significance of benefits and show undesirable consequences. Support a counterproposal outside the scope of the proposition.
Methods of Definition Standardized reference—dictionary. Collateral means “parallel.” Contextual usage—expert definition. “In war, collateral damage occurs when unintended targets are hit by military strikes.” Example—specific instance. Negation—what term does not mean. “It is not collateral damage if a civilian target was intended to be hit by a military strike.”
Nonpolicy Stock Issues “Significance of the exigency.” Importance of issue (like “ill”). “Definitions of key terms.” “Audience-centered criteria.” Description of how judgment is made. “Value comparison.” Appropriate weighting of values.