Presentation on theme: "LINCOLN – DOUGLAS DEBATE An Introduction. One-On-One Debate Speakers who are affirmative deliver three speeches The first speech is a constructive."— Presentation transcript:
LINCOLN – DOUGLAS DEBATE An Introduction
One-On-One Debate Speakers who are affirmative deliver three speeches The first speech is a constructive speech There are also two rebuttal speeches The negative speaker presents two speeches. A constructive and a rebuttal The Affirmative must have first and last speech Negative speeches are longer
The Format of L-D Debate A single round of debate includes five speeches and two cross-examination periods.
The Format of L-D Debate Constructive Speeches Affirmative Constructive Speech – 6 minutes Cross-Examination by Negative – 3 minutes Negative Constructive Speech – 7 minutes Cross Examination by Affirmative – 3 minutes
The Format of L-D Debate Rebuttal Speeches First Affirmative Rebuttal – 4 minutes Negative Rebuttal – 6 minutes Second Affirmative Rebuttal – 3 minutes Total Prep. Time for Each Team – 4 minutes Total Time Required for One Round – 36 minutes
Preparation Time? Four minutes of total preparation time. If all four minutes are used before the first speech, no prep. Time is left for the remaining speech. Save as much time for the period just before your final rebuttal.
Hallmarks of L-D Debate L-D debate focuses on a proposition of value. A proposition of value concerns itself with what ought to be instead of what is. A value is defined as an ideal held by individuals, societies, and governments.
Hallmarks of L-D Debate L-D debaters develop argumentation based upon a values perspective. Debaters should focus on reasoning to support a general principle instead of offering particular plans or counter-plans
Hallmarks of L-D Debate 1. Parallel Burdens 2. Value Structure 3. Argumentation 4. Cross Examination 5. Effective Delivery
Parallel Burdens Both the affirmative and the negative have the responsibility to show that their side of the resolution is more desirable as a general principle. Neither debater should be held to a standard of absolute proof. Neither debater will be able to prove the complete validity or invalidity of the resolution.
Parallel Burdens The better debater proves, on the whole, his or her side of the resolution more valid as a general principle. There is no presumption for either side in a value debate resolution. Both the affirmative and the negative debater have a burden of proof.
Parallel Burdens Each debater has an equal responsibility to answer the arguments made by the other side. The question of whether the resolution is worthy of debate is irrelevant to the outcome of a given round of competition.
Value Structure The L-D framework includes the following elements: 1. A statement of the resolution 2. Definitions of key terms 3. A value premise (or core value) 4. And a value criterion (or standard)
Value Structure The affirmative should offer contextual or dictionary definitions that offer reasonable grounds for debate. The negative has the option to challenge the affirmative definition of terms and to offer counter- definitions.
Value Structure A value premise or core value is an ideal held by individuals, societies, governments, and so on…that serves as the highest goal to be protected, respected, maximized, advanced, or achieved. This means that debaters choose a value that, in their opinions, best captures the essence of the resolution and provide a focus for argumentation
Value Structure The value criterion or value standard provides one or more of the following: It explains how the value should be protected, respected, maximized, advanced or achieved. It measures whether a given side or a argument protects, maximizes, advances, or achieves the value. Cont.
Value Structure (Cont.) It evaluates the relevance and importance of an argument in the context of the round. Each debater should clearly show the relationship between the value premise (core value) and the criterion (standard evaluation).
Value Structure In some debates there are competing value system. In other instances the negative might agree on the affirmation’s value premise but offer a competing standard for evaluation. In still other instances, the negative might accept both the value premise and the standard but show that the negative interpretation of the resolution best meets the standard.
Argumentation In L-D debate, logical support usually goes well beyond the mere use of authoritative quotations. Yet the L-D debater often offers logical support using a wide variety of forms: A student’s original analysis, application of philosophy, examples, analogies, statistics, narrative, as well as expert testimony.
Argumentation Because L-D debate specializes in value hierarchies, a premium is placed on the ability to discuss great philosophical concepts such as utilitarianism, relativism, the categorical imperative, rationalism, existentialism, humanism, communitarianism, and objectivism.
Cross Examination Cross-Examination should be used by the debater to clarify, challenge, and/or advance arguments in the round.
Effective Delivery / Communication L-D is a form of debate in which public speaking skills are emphasized. Arguments should be worded and presented so they can be understood by a general audience. Debaters are encouraged to write affirmative and negative cases that are marked by expressiveness, appropriate word choice, and eloquence. The case should employ clear logic and be supported with topical research.
Speaker Responsibilities in L-D Debate Affirmative Constructive Speech The affirmative debater provides a pre-prepared case advocating the resolution. State the resolution (core or value premise), offer a criterion (or standard) for achieving or measuring the central value, and show whey the resolution meets this standard.
Speaker Responsibilities in L-D Debate Negative Constructive Speech The negative case should define key terms, identifying a value, defend criterion (or standard) for achieving or measuring the central value, and show why the resolution meets this standard.
Speaker Responsibility in L-D Debate First Affirmative Rebuttal Speech The affirmative should answer the negative case and then re-defend the affirmative case (answering the attacks made by the negative in the previous speech) No new arguments are allowed in any rebuttal speech.
Speaker Responsibility in L-D Debate Negative Rebuttal Speech The negative has six minutes to crystallize the debate, showing why the negative case is superior to the affirmative case.
Speaker Responsibilities in L-D Debate Second Affirmative Rebuttal Speech This three-minute speech offers the affirmative an opportunity to summarize and extend arguments in favor of the affirmative case and in opposition to the negative. A premium is placed on a debater’s ability to locate persuasive reasons the affirmative case is superior to the negative.