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Financial Crisis of 2008 Econ 102 2014. Worst recession in 80 years How did it happen? How was the situation before the crisis? ‘ Great Moderation’ Stable.

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Presentation on theme: "Financial Crisis of 2008 Econ 102 2014. Worst recession in 80 years How did it happen? How was the situation before the crisis? ‘ Great Moderation’ Stable."— Presentation transcript:

1 Financial Crisis of 2008 Econ

2 Worst recession in 80 years How did it happen? How was the situation before the crisis? ‘ Great Moderation’ Stable growth and low inflation

3 Worst recession in 80 years How did it happen? How was the situation before the crisis? ‘ Great Moderation’ Stable growth and low inflation Too much saving in Asia, very low global interest rates

4 Low interest rates Borrowing, Households, businesses, Banks! Purchase Household bought houses, (mortgage) Banks bought ‘securities’ (bond like assets)

5 Households Borrowed from banks for long term, which is called ‘Mortgage’. Banks wants some guarantee, ‘collateral’ HH used their houses as collateral,

6 House prices were rising All over in the US. Hence banks do not hesitated. They started lending to parties with ‘poor credit histories’, ‘sub prime borrowers’

7 Why did not just hurt the banks which gave the initial loans? Financial innovations: Repackage the mortgages, How? Pool different mortgages, mix them and call it a new asset. Eg. (10% high income mortgage+30% middle income mortgage+60% low income mortgage) ‘mortgage backed securities’

8 Continued to repackage... Mix them even more and call them... Eg. (10% Boston mortgage+30% DC mortgage+60% Texas mortgage) ‘Collateralized Debt Obligations’ : CDO

9 Continued to repackage... Mix them even more and call them... Eg. (10% Boston mortgage+30% DC mortgage+60% Texas mortgage) ‘Collateralized Debt Obligations’ : CDO Ask credit rating agencies to value these Moody’s or Standard & Poors triple A (AAA)

10 Who purchased these? All Investors.... in US, in Europe, in Asia and in the whole world.  To make return higher than the market interest rates

11 Next.... House prices in the US started declining. the households can not pay back their debt, value of the collateral declined, ‘mortgage backed securities’ became worthless Banks lost their assets..., they started selling assets, ‘fire-sales prices’

12 Next.... House prices in the US started declining. the households can not pay back their debt, value of the collateral declined, ‘mortgage backed securities’ became worthless Banks lost their assets..., they started selling assets, Mortgage backed securities, CDO became worthless

13 Complete loss of assets Banks can not find new lenders to pay back their debt. Banks worth decline, because of ‘mark-to-market accounting’.

14 First Casualty Northern Rock – British Mortgage lender (late 2007)

15 Another financial innovation and another casualty... ‘Credit Default Swaps’- insurance to compensate the buyer of a loan if the 3 rd party does not pay. AIG- Insurance company got into trouble. FED come to rescue with a $ 85 billion help.

16 Another real casualty Lehman Brother went bankrupt. FED did not rescue them. Why? BIG PANIC-

17 Another real casualty Lehman Brother went bankrupt. FED did not rescue them. Why? BIG PANIC- No one is lending, no one is borrowing...

18 PANIC and financial markets almost stopped working. Consumption dropped, Investment dropped, Exports drastically dropped, What happened to Aggregate Demand? GREAT RECESSION

19 What can the policy makers do? Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy,

20 What can the policy makers do? Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy, This was challenging because the interest rates were very low, With expansionary monetary policy they hot zero.... Liquidity trap

21 Creative monetary policy How to increase spending and investment? Inject money into the system through banks... How ?

22 Creative monetary policy How to increase spending and investment? Inject money into the system through banks... How ? But their worthless ‘toxic assets’, reserves increase loans increase, ‘Quantitative Easing’

23 US Money growth rate

24 Nonconventional monetary policy FED was buying $85 billion worth of assets each month. ‘Tapered off’... dropped to $65 billion worth of assets each month. Bernanke mentioned in June 2013, then changed his decision in September $4.1 trillion of QE bond buys,

25 Quantitative Easing Now it is $ 55 billion purchases each month. Will stop some time in late 2014 or early 2015, and promised that they will not raise the interest rates until 2015.

26 How do they decide? Unemployment rate:

27 GDP growth rate in the US


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