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EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Overview of main reporting problem areas in energy balances/ energy related parts of GHG inventories Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Overview of main reporting problem areas in energy balances/ energy related parts of GHG inventories Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Overview of main reporting problem areas in energy balances/ energy related parts of GHG inventories Workshop on energy balances and energy related GHG emission inventories under WG1 of the EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism Committee June 2003, Copenhagen Anke Herold Workshop on energy balances and energy related GHG emission inventories under WG1 of the EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism Committee June 2003, Copenhagen Anke Herold

2 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Fuel definitions w National fuel definitions have to be mapped to definitions used in Eurostat questionnaires and to fuel categories used in IPCC reference approach reporting table w Mapping is fairly obvious for many fuels, but there are cases where additional explanations are necessary (e.g. coal categories) w Transparent reporting of mapping is already performed by some countries as part of their NIR, but not available for all countries w Transparent reporting of mapping would point at specific problems, difficulties and inconsistencies in fuel categorization w National fuel definitions have to be mapped to definitions used in Eurostat questionnaires and to fuel categories used in IPCC reference approach reporting table w Mapping is fairly obvious for many fuels, but there are cases where additional explanations are necessary (e.g. coal categories) w Transparent reporting of mapping is already performed by some countries as part of their NIR, but not available for all countries w Transparent reporting of mapping would point at specific problems, difficulties and inconsistencies in fuel categorization

3 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Source category definitions I w Autoproduction of electricity and heat –IPCC Guidelines: emissions from autoproduction are assigned to the industry sector where they were generated and not under public electricity and heat production in the energy sector –Energy balances: Fuel consumption by autoproducers is included as a total figure in the transformation activity sector –Allocation of emissions from autoproduction to six IPCC industrial source categories can be difficult. However at the national level disaggregated data for reclassification of autoproducers may be available w Autoproduction of electricity and heat –IPCC Guidelines: emissions from autoproduction are assigned to the industry sector where they were generated and not under public electricity and heat production in the energy sector –Energy balances: Fuel consumption by autoproducers is included as a total figure in the transformation activity sector –Allocation of emissions from autoproduction to six IPCC industrial source categories can be difficult. However at the national level disaggregated data for reclassification of autoproducers may be available

4 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Source category definitions II w Transport emissions in industry –IPCC Guidelines: reporting of all transport emissions in transport source categories in the energy sector, emissions from road transport in manufacturing industries have to be identified and excluded from emissions of manufacturing industries (emissions from off-road transport included in manufacturing industries) –Energy balances: show deliveries of fuels by transport mode and deliveries of fuels to the branches in manufacturing industry. The use of fuels within manufacturing enterprises is not shown –Required information may be available nationally apart from energy balances w Transport emissions in industry –IPCC Guidelines: reporting of all transport emissions in transport source categories in the energy sector, emissions from road transport in manufacturing industries have to be identified and excluded from emissions of manufacturing industries (emissions from off-road transport included in manufacturing industries) –Energy balances: show deliveries of fuels by transport mode and deliveries of fuels to the branches in manufacturing industry. The use of fuels within manufacturing enterprises is not shown –Required information may be available nationally apart from energy balances

5 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Source category definitions III w Emissions from blast furnaces where C is used as fuel and reducing agent –IPCC GPG: The primary purpose of coke oxidation is to reduce iron oxide ore to crude or pig iron, therefore the emissions are seen as part of the emissions from industrial processes. –Emissions arising from blast furnace gas are allocated to the industrial processes sector, irrespective of the use of the gas. The fuel combustion emissions should be correspondingly reduced. –Risk of double counting if emissions are not subtracted from fuel combustion in the energy sector w Emissions from blast furnaces where C is used as fuel and reducing agent –IPCC GPG: The primary purpose of coke oxidation is to reduce iron oxide ore to crude or pig iron, therefore the emissions are seen as part of the emissions from industrial processes. –Emissions arising from blast furnace gas are allocated to the industrial processes sector, irrespective of the use of the gas. The fuel combustion emissions should be correspondingly reduced. –Risk of double counting if emissions are not subtracted from fuel combustion in the energy sector

6 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Source category definitions IV w Emissions from domestic and international aviation and navigation –Separation of fuel consumption to domestic categories and international bunkers is difficult for most countries –Statistical offices usually don’t have the necessary data to provide a separation of domestic and international aviation and navigation in accordance with IPCC Guidelines –International data sets on international aviation are compiled on the basis of different assumptions and definitions, comparison of data is difficult as definitions used are not always transparent. w Emissions from domestic and international aviation and navigation –Separation of fuel consumption to domestic categories and international bunkers is difficult for most countries –Statistical offices usually don’t have the necessary data to provide a separation of domestic and international aviation and navigation in accordance with IPCC Guidelines –International data sets on international aviation are compiled on the basis of different assumptions and definitions, comparison of data is difficult as definitions used are not always transparent.

7 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE CO 2 emission factors for fuels I wThe following tables compile information from inventories (CRF and NIRs) on country-specific CO 2 emission factors for individual fuel types and compare those with IPCC default emission factors for fuels wResults are shown separately for soil, liquid and gaseous fuels w‚IPCC‘ in the tables means that the respective country used IPCC CO 2 emission factors in the reference approach table of the CRF wWhen CO 2 emissions from reference approach are calculated with IPCC default EF and sectoral emissions with country-specific EF, differences in CO 2 estimates will arise wThe following tables compile information from inventories (CRF and NIRs) on country-specific CO 2 emission factors for individual fuel types and compare those with IPCC default emission factors for fuels wResults are shown separately for soil, liquid and gaseous fuels w‚IPCC‘ in the tables means that the respective country used IPCC CO 2 emission factors in the reference approach table of the CRF wWhen CO 2 emissions from reference approach are calculated with IPCC default EF and sectoral emissions with country-specific EF, differences in CO 2 estimates will arise

8 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE CO 2 emission factors for fuels II

9 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE CO 2 emission factors for fuels III

10 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE CO 2 emission factors for fuels IV

11 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE CO 2 emission factors for fuels V w Biofuels and waste fuels –Comparison across countries more difficult because fuel categories are country-specific –Biogenic carbon has to be separated from fossil carbon in waste fuels which requires a careful distinction of different types of wastes. Specialised waste fuels (industrial wastes) containing mainly fossil carbon should be clearly distinguished from the use of biofuels. –Waste categories may need to be refined, better data on the fossil/bio proportions and the calorific values and emission factors for each part are needed w Biofuels and waste fuels –Comparison across countries more difficult because fuel categories are country-specific –Biogenic carbon has to be separated from fossil carbon in waste fuels which requires a careful distinction of different types of wastes. Specialised waste fuels (industrial wastes) containing mainly fossil carbon should be clearly distinguished from the use of biofuels. –Waste categories may need to be refined, better data on the fossil/bio proportions and the calorific values and emission factors for each part are needed

12 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Conversion factors/ calorific values w w For the transformation of mass units (kt) to energy units (TJ) calorific values of fuels are needed w w Country-specific calorific values are frequently used at the national level which are not always reported transparently w w International data sets may use different calorific values which will lead to differences, sometimes underlying calorific values also not transparent w w Transparency of inventories is currently improving due to information in NIRs w w For the transformation of mass units (kt) to energy units (TJ) calorific values of fuels are needed w w Country-specific calorific values are frequently used at the national level which are not always reported transparently w w International data sets may use different calorific values which will lead to differences, sometimes underlying calorific values also not transparent w w Transparency of inventories is currently improving due to information in NIRs

13 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Non-energy use of fuels wDefinitions/ classes of non-energy fuel use wLifetimes of carbon stored in products (IPCC assumption 20 years), carbon storage factors used in IPCC Guidelines wMethods for accounting of emissions from long-life products wData availability wDefinitions/ classes of non-energy fuel use wLifetimes of carbon stored in products (IPCC assumption 20 years), carbon storage factors used in IPCC Guidelines wMethods for accounting of emissions from long-life products wData availability

14 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Problems related to reporting system w Timeliness –Some countries use preliminary data for reporting of recent years, sometimes quite large time gaps w Updating of historic data –Revisions of historical data are sometimes performed at national level, but not reported to international organisations w Lack of information on data quality and uncertainties w Institutional arrangements –Communication between energy and environment authorities –Clear responsibilities for reporting to international organisations w Timeliness –Some countries use preliminary data for reporting of recent years, sometimes quite large time gaps w Updating of historic data –Revisions of historical data are sometimes performed at national level, but not reported to international organisations w Lack of information on data quality and uncertainties w Institutional arrangements –Communication between energy and environment authorities –Clear responsibilities for reporting to international organisations

15 EUROPEAN TOPIC CENTRE ON AIR AND CLIMATE CHANGE Possible outcomes of the workshop w Workshop will discuss a range of problems related to reporting of energy data and GHG inventories w Discussion should also focus on recommendations how different problems could be resolved w Recommendations should clearly address by whom / in which process they should be implemented w Workshop will discuss a range of problems related to reporting of energy data and GHG inventories w Discussion should also focus on recommendations how different problems could be resolved w Recommendations should clearly address by whom / in which process they should be implemented


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