Presentation on theme: "The Jazz Age 1921-1929. A Clash of Values Nativism resurges as immigration picked up after World War I Many immigrants were accused of being anarchists-"— Presentation transcript:
The Jazz Age
A Clash of Values Nativism resurges as immigration picked up after World War I Many immigrants were accused of being anarchists- people who oppose all forms of government. Nativist and racist feelings were reinforced by the Eugenics movement. Eugenics- a (pseudo-science) or false science that deals with improving inherited traits.
Controlling Immigration At the forefront of the movement to restrict immigration was the KKK- or Ku Klux Klan; was started by six college students, ex veterans of the Civil War President Harding signed the Emergency Quota Act- which established a temporary quota system, limiting immigration. Ethnic identity and national origin thus determined admission to the United States. National Origins Act- made immigrant restriction a permanent policy.
The New Morality Women began to define the “New Morality” of American life during the 1920’s. Women bobbed and shortened their hair and wore flesh colored silk stockings. Women took on the name of flappers- a young, dramatic, stylish, and unconventional women. Many women also sought social freedoms and financial independence by entering the workforce, many of them as salesclerks.
Fundamentalist Movement Modern consumer culture, relaxed ethics and growing urbanism symbolized the nation’s moral decline. A religious movement known as fundamentalism- belief that the Bible was literally true and without error, arose in small rural towns.
Fundamentalists rejected Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution- theory human beings had developed from lower forms of life over millions of years. Fundamentalists instead believed in creationism- belief that God created the world as described in the Bible.
Scopes Trial- Evolutionists and creationists clashed in a historic trial debating whether evolution should be taught in school. Evolutionists- believed human beings had developed from lower forms of life over the course of millions of years. John T. Scopes defended by Clarence Darrow Creationists- believed that God created the world as described in the bible. Represented by William Jennings Bryan. The Scopes Monkey Trial
Prohibition Prohibition- is the ban of all alcohol. Volstead Act- enforced prohibition, Americans soon flocked Speakeasies- secret bars where Americans could consume alcohol and have a good time. The government struggled to enforce prohibition. More than 540,000 arrests were made but still Americans persisted in blatantly ignoring the law.
Cultural Innovations Ernest Hemmingway- wrote fiction poems using direct, simple, and concise prose. F. Scott Fitzgerald most famous writer of the era, used colorful glamorous characters. Babe Ruth- baseball star became a national hero hitting hundreds of home runs. Other sports heroes of the day were “Jack ‘Boxer’ Dempsey” and golfer Bobby Jones. Mass Media- radio, movies, newspapers, and magazines offered a sense of shared national experience.
African American Culture Great Migration- migration of African Americans to industrial cities in the North to escape the segregation of the South Harlem Renaissance- stimulated artistic development, racial pride, a sense of community and political organization in the African American community. Important writers of the Harlem Renaissance were Claude McKay and Langston Hughes who wrote about a proud defiance and bitter contempt of racism.
Jazz, Blues, and Theater Louis Armstrong- migrant from New Orleans, introduced early form of Jazz to Chicago. Jazz- ragged rhythms and syncopated melodies, mix of Dixieland and ragtime. Bessie Smith symbolized soul she sang of unfulfilled love, poverty, and oppression. Her emotional singing style and commanding voice earned her the title “the Empress of the Blues” Blues- a soulful style of music that evolved from African American spirituals
African American Politics Oscar DePriest- first African American representative in Congress, introduced laws to provide support to former African American slaves. NAACP- battled against segregation and discrimination against African Americans through lobbying public officials and working through court systems. In 1922 legislation in the House of Representatives passed a anti-lynching bill but the Senate defeated it and even though lynching's continued the number was far fewer.
Marcus Garvey a Jamaican immigrant called for “Negro Nationalism” which glorified the black culture and traditions of the past Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and wanted African Americans to create a settlement in Liberia. Government officials saw this as a threat and convicted Garvey of mail fraud and sent him to prison, later he was deported by President Coolidge