Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Colonization on Southeastern Tribal Life:"— Presentation transcript:
1The Effects of Colonization on Southeastern Tribal Life: CherokeeCatawbaYemassee
2Native Americans in South Carolina Indians or Native Americans were the first people to live on the land that is now South Carolina.Some people think that there were originally between different tribes in S.C.The three main tribes or groups that occupied S.C. are the Catawba Indians, the Cherokee Indians, and the Yemassee Indians.The Native Americans lived throughout the state. Some lived near the coast, some lived in the lowlands, and some lived into the mountainous areas of S.C.
3Three Main Tribes of South Carolina prior to Colonization
4Cherokee IndiansSouth Carolina’s largest tribe of Native Americans were the Cherokee tribe.The Cherokee Indians lived in the northwestern part of the state. Towns built up along rivers of the Up Country.The Cherokee Indians built towns along rivers to have access for fishing and traveling by canoe to other Cherokee towns for trading.
5Cherokee Agriculture and Hunting Agriculture: The Cherokee were farmers, hunters and gatherers. They grew corn, squash and beans, along with pumpkin, melons, sunflowers, tobacco, and other crops. Corn was the most important food. The women made sure they planted enough crops to provide food for two years.Hunting & Fishing: The Cherokee were wonderful hunters. Legend says ... They could hit a fly from 30 feet away. They did not hunt for sport. The men only hunted what they needed to feed their families. Every part of the animal was used. The most important animal for their needs was the deer. They hunted turtles for food and used turtle shells for rattles.Tools: They made blowguns, bows and arrows, animal traps, nets to catch fish, and spears.
6Cherokee ClothingClothing: Women wore deerskin tops, skirts, and moccasins. Men wore deerskin loin clothes in the summer, and added leggings, shirts, and robes in the winter, all made of deerskin.Tattoos and Body Paint: Men commonly decorated their bodies and faces with tattoos or paint.Jewelry/Beads: They made jewelry of shells and silver. Women made painted clay beads.
7Cherokee GovernmentRed Chief, White Chief: The Cherokee lived in villages. Each village had two chiefs - a "white" chief who led in times of peace, and a "red" chief who led in times of war. Unless the Cherokee were at war, the war chief had nothing to do except drill and keep himself and his warriors fit. This was very smart. The Cherokee could response instantly to a war threat with able leadership.Village Council: Peace chiefs did not rule alone. They had able council. In peacetime, his right-hand and his speaker, along with six other men, helped the chief. These 9 men made up the Village Council. The Council made important decisions for the village.
8Cherokee LifeVillage Life: The Cherokee lived in villages. Each village was home to about people. In each village, there were homes, a plaza, a town square, and a council house large enough to hold all the villagers during a village meeting. Winter Round Homes: Round homes were made of wood, and covered with mud for additional protection against the cold. Homes had bark roofs. The homes were decorated with colorful rugs, baskets, and wall hangings. Each home had a fire burning in the center. Homes had smoke holes at the top to let out the smoke.Summer Rectangle Homes: Summer homes were bigger. They were made in the shape of huge rectangles. Cone shaped roofs were made of bark and covered with long grass. The house was made with long sticks. These homes were cool, airy and let in light.
9Cherokee Arts and Crafts Canoes: Canoes were carved from wood.Clay Pots: The Cherokee dug clay. They used the clay to make handmade pots. While the clay was still wet, natives decorated the pots with designs made with sticks and stones. Then pots were baked in the fire to give them strength. They used clay pots as cooking utensils, liquid holders, and planters.Carved Pipes: The Cherokee carved pipes from clay, wood, and soapstone. Pipes used in religion ceremonies and peace ceremonies were carefully decorated.Masks & Rattles: In olden days, only the men made masks. Cherokee men carved ferocious masks from wood. They painted them. Sometimes they added fur decorations. Warriors used these scary masks to make fun of their enemies. Before a battle, the warriors would dance around wearing scary masks and laugh. This type of mask was called a Booger Mask.They made rattles to scare away evil spirits. They also used rattles to invite the attention of good spirits. Rattles were made with turtle shells filled with corn kernels. Some rattles were made from gourds and squashes.Double Wall Baskets: In olden days, only the women made baskets. Baskets had fancy designs and were made in a special way with double weaving using river cane. This method made the baskets sturdy. Designs were handed down from mother to daughter.
10Catawba Indian History South Carolina’s second largest tribe of Native Americans was the Catawba tribe.The Catawba Indians lived in the Piedmont region of South Carolina. Their name means “River People.” They settled near the Catawba River.The Rock Hill area is home to many of the descendents of the Catawba. The Catawba Indians spoke Sioux language.
11Catawba Agriculture and Hunting Farming – Corn, beans, and squashFishing – Variety of freshwater fishHunting – Deer, other gameThey used snares and homemade nets for fishing.Bow and arrows were used for hunting game.
12Catawba ClothingMen – Loin cloths made of deerskin. When they went to war, they painted a black circle around one eye and a white circle around the other.Women – Knee-length skirts of deerskinDuring winter and when traveling, men and women wore pants, leggings, and capes made of various animal hides.Men and women wore jewelry made of shells, beads, and copper. On special occasions, they painted their skin.
13Catawba Beliefs, Practices, and Government The Catawba worshiped a deity known as "He-Who-Never-Dies."The tribe usually had one or more priests or healers who conducted religious rituals and provided herbal medicines.The Catawba believed that the soul of a person who had been killed demanded retribution in order to rest in peace. If a member of the tribe was killed, men would go out to avenge the death. If successful, the men would bring back a scalp as evidence of revenge.Each Catawba village had a council that made laws and decisions. The village chief was the council leader.
14Yemassee Indians History Another tribe in South Carolina was the Yemassee tribe.Not much is known about the Yemassee tribe of long ago.The Yemassee lived along the coast of Florida and Georgia until the Spanish tried to make them slaves. As a result, tribe members traveled to the Low Country of South Carolina.They built towns near the Savannah River and the Combahee River. Building near rivers made it easy for them to fish, cook, wash, drink, and travel by canoe to other villages and towns for trade.
15Yemassee Agriculture and Hunting Their land was farmed by the men and women. They ate shellfish such as clams and oysters that they caught in the ocean. They also hunted animals.It is not known whether this tribe did any farming. Being near to the coast, farming may not have been an option.
16Yemassee Dwellings and Beliefs The Yemassee tribe lived in homes near the beach during warmer months but moved inland to villages during the colder months.Huts were made of logs with thatched palmetto roofs.Indian mounds were used as burial sites.
17First ContactWhen the Europeans arrived in the late 1400s, there were hundreds of Native American cultures in the Americas.All of these cultures spoke different languages and had different beliefs. The settlers thought they were all one group.Contact between these two cultures would change life in the Americas forever.
18Prior to ColonizationBefore Europeans came to North America, Native Americans traded with each other and learned from one another.Different tribes had different ways of life. All Native Americans respected the earth.
19Why Colonists Left Their Homeland Many settlers came to America for religious freedom.Others believed America had unspoiled land that could be turned into farmland. Europeans thought owning land was a sign of success.Some Europeans went to America to fish, hunt, and trap animals for fur.
20First Impressions Many Native Americans welcomed Europeans at first. They believed in sharing the land and its many resources.The settlers found this new group of people strange and scary because they were different.The Native Americans and the colonists had much to learn from each other.
21Native American Contributions Corn was the most important crop in the Americas. The Native Americans showed the settlers how to produce corn, maple syrup, sugar cane, and grains.Cash crops such as tobacco and cotton were also introduced to the settlers. Many of them saw this as a way to get rich.Wild turkey and buffalo were two animals that were new to the settlers.
22Colonists’ Contributions The colonists brought many things from Europe that changed the lives of Native Americans. Some helped Native Americans while others hindered their way of life.Europeans brought different kinds of animals to the Americas. Among these animals were pigs, cattle, goats, and sheep.The introduction of the horse had the greatest impact on Native American life. Although many natives were weary of the animal, it changed the way they traveled, hunted, and fought.
23Colonists’ Contribution con’t. Colonists arrived with metal tools and weapons which were unfamiliar to Native Americans.Europeans arrived with their religious beliefs. Missionaries tried to convert some Native Americans to Christianity.The arrival of the colonists brought a variety of deadly diseases. It is believed that 50 to 90 percent of Native Americans died from European diseases.
24Trade Trading was important to Native Americans and settlers. Usually, goods were bartered or exchanged between Native Americans and settlers.The Native Americans traded deerskins and animal furs for European goods. Knives, axes, and guns were in great demand.
25Different BeliefsMost Native Americans saw themselves as caretakers of the earth. They did not believe in owning land. Everyone could use the earth’s resources, but people should never take more than they needed and they should not be wasteful. When they took something, they believed something should be given back.The settlers had different beliefs. They held no regard for earth’s resources and felt these resources would last forever. Most settlers wanted to own land for farming or ranching. Owning land was a sign a wealthThese different beliefs caused problems between the Native Americans and the settlers.
26Endless ConflictDue to the different beliefs of Native Americans and settlers regarding the ownership of land, violence and bloodshed began to dominate the Americas.Land-hungry settlers built farms and towns on Native American hunting grounds.Settlers destroyed Native American villages and forced some Native Americans to relocate on reservations and change their way of life.Many wars were fought over land including The Yemassee War in 1715 which virtually decimated the whole tribe.
27Trail of TearsTrail of Tears was the Cherokee name for what the Americans called Indian Removal.During the 1800's, the US government created an "Indian Territory" in Oklahoma and sent all the eastern Native American tribes to live there. Some tribes willingly agreed to this plan. Other tribes didn't want to go, and the United States Army forced them to relocate.
28Life Forever Altered"This war did not spring up here in our land. It was brought upon us by the children of the Great Father (whites) who came to take our land from us without price, and who do many evil things It seems to me that there is a better way than this. When people come to trouble it is better for both parties to come together without arms, to talk it over, and find some peaceful way to settle." (Spotted Tail Brule, Sioux leader, 1877)