Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT CHINA CHAPTER 5. Geography of China’s River Valleys When you think of Dragons….What comes to mind?"— Presentation transcript:
ANCIENT CHINA CHAPTER 5
Geography of China’s River Valleys When you think of Dragons….What comes to mind?
Chinese Dragons Dragons were a respected spirit Brought the life giving rains (China had Dragon rain ceremonies) China’s Explanation of rivers?
The Geography of China Contrasting Climate and Landforms North China Plain- Built by soil deposits from the Huang River Short Summer and rain season due to the monsoons Climate is very dry most of the year
Contrasting Climates Southern climate is the direct opposite of the North (duh) Very warm and damp
Effects of Civilization Geographic Barriers? Mountains Rivers What did these barriers do?/ Cause
Flooding Rivers China’s flooding rivers did what for the people? Based off of everything we have learned this year, where do you believe the first Chinese villages were established?
Yellow River The Huang River carries deposits of loess Loess- yellow-brown soil When the river floods it leaves this yellow brown silt all over the northern region That’s why the northern region can still farm even though it is dry Millet is grown here (staple of Chinese diet)
China’s Sorrow The Huang (Yellow) River was called China’s Sorrow Why?
Flood Control Dikes- walls to control the floods Major issue as a result?
Early Civilization in China It is unknown when the first nomadic groups began settling and farming in the region, but it was believed to be as early as 5000 B.C.
Shang Dynasty 1 st Major Civilization in China Arose around 1760 B.C. Created the first Chinese writing system the writing system was culturally universal, multiple different Chinese groups could use the writing system Built China’s first cities Great Bronze workers Ruled for about 600 years
Zhou Dynasty Bordered the Shang Had times of War and Peace with the Shang Conquered the Shang in 1122 BC Ruled for 1000 years (Western Zhou/Eastern Zhou) The end of the Zhou was marked by a perior of time called the Warring States This period lasted only a small time before the Qin took over
Mandate of Heaven The idea is that a King or Ruler gets his power by fate, God has determined that person will be in control. Same goes for the father leading his family.
The Importance of Family Family is the center of Chinese life, more important than the individual and the nation.
Traditional Families Could contain up to 5 generations Extended family- closely related group of people living in the same house Wealthy families may live in one big house Majority of the people were poor and lived in one room cottages positioned close to one and other
Family Authority Center authority was the eldest male After the oldest man died, land was divided up between his sons and they started their own families at that point.
Women’s Roles Women were considered lower status than men Women were bound by the 3 obedience's 1- obey father in youth 2- obey husband in marriage 3- obey their sons if widowed
Family Names Chinese tradition is that the family name is passed on to each child then a personal name is given also. When spoken, the family name comes first. Example instead of Seth Whiting, I would be Whiting Seth. What would your name be?
Confucius and His Teachings Section 2
The Life of Confucius Confucius- Chinese teacher and philosopher Name- Kong Fu Zi (Master Kong) one of the earliest Chinese thinkers (Confucius is the Latin translation) Born to a Noble (yet poor) family in the North China Plain (NCP) Self taught (became a teacher)
Teaching Pioneer First recognized paid teacher Goal was to find a leader to follow his teachings He never did Believed his life to be a failure Teaching lasted for centuries
The Teachings of Confucius His goal was to pass on forgotten teachings of wise men Confucianism- A system of values and beliefs, a philosophy, based on Confucius’s ideas
Bringing Order to Society Confucius believed that if people could be trained to behave properly, and orderly successful society would follow Too many of China’s leaders were more worried about displaying power than intellegence
Respecting Others People should know their place, and show respect to those above and below them The five human relationships: Ruler and Ruled Father and Son Husband and Wife Older Brother and Younger Brother Friend and Friend
The Golden Rule Very similar to Jewish and Christian belief that: “Do not do to others what you would not want done to yourself”
Religious Traditions Confucianism is a philosophy but was followed much like a religion, often along side another original religion Ancient China was home to many beliefs Chinese people believed that you should live life in harmony and happiness Taoism- living in harmony with the earth (based off of the writings of Laozi)
Influence of Confucianism Confucian ideas became the basis for Chinese government civil service Civil Service- group of people who carry out the work of the government Merit System- Govt. positions were given based on how well you did your job and if you passed the exams Rising to high Positions- In order to take the exam you had to read and write, this left poor people out of govt. office because most lacked the ability to read and write
THE WARRING KINGDOMS UNITE
SHI HUANGDI The first Emperor of China 6000 piece terracotta army
SHI HUANGDI The emperor had this army created to protect his tomb and help him gain control in the afterlife. He had grand plans for real life as well, he said his dynasty would last for 10,000 generations
THE QIN DYNASTY
QIN DYNASTY Lasted only 2 generations Shi Huangdi was the first emperor He conquered and united all the warring states First task was to enforce strong rule and protect his people He ordered the construction of the great wall of China
GREAT WALL FACTS The Great wall is one continuous structure built by the QIN Dynasty…? False- it was started by the Qin and added to by many other dynasties. The wall is built in segments some attached others detached. Death Toll- 1,000,000. Referred to as the longest cemetery in the world! Length of the Defense walls- 31,070 miles Circumference of earth- 24,854 miles
More Great Wall Facts The wheelbarrow was invented and used extensively to build the great wall 25ft tall and up to 30 ft wide.
Organizing the Government To stop rebelions, Huangdi had farmers build miles of road so his armies could quickly get to any uprising and stop it. Huangdi killed any official who opposed him Divided China into districts run by his trusted officials
Unifying Economy & Culture Huangdi declared that one currency would be used Currency- type of money Why would he want one currency for all of China? Also called for: common weights and measures improved writing system law code
Restricting Freedoms Outlawed philosopher who was not QIN Confucius's teachings were banned Qin taught legalism, the Idea that you are punished for bad behavior and rewarded for good behavior People should work to serve the govt. and the emperor Huangdi burnt all books except those containing medical, technical, or farming information. The people who protested were killed
The End of the Qin Huangdi died in 210 B.C. It was followed by 4 years of chaos 9 (both his sons were killed) His grandson takes over but cannot maintain control Rebellions broke out and the dynasty fell The 10,000 generation dynasty only lasted 15 years