Presentation on theme: "-1- What the Buddha Taught A series of lecture-discussions sponsored by Oxford Soto Zen Suggested by Les Kaye Led by Jimmyle Listenbee Based on What the."— Presentation transcript:
-1- What the Buddha Taught A series of lecture-discussions sponsored by Oxford Soto Zen Suggested by Les Kaye Led by Jimmyle Listenbee Based on What the Buddha Taught by Walpola Rahula
-2- Lecture 3 Chapter 2: The Four Noble Truths The 1 st Noble Truth: Dukkha
-3- The Four Noble Truths I.Dukkha II.Samudaya, the arising or origin of dukkha III.Nirodha, the cessation of dukkha IV.Magga, the way leading to the cessation of dukkha
-4- The 1 st Noble Truth: Dukkha Dukkha has two translations: “Suffering” – pain, in the ordinary sense Also “impermanence”, “imperfection”, “emptiness”, “insubstantiality. Everyone experiences dukkha. Whatever is impermanent is dukkha.
-5- Focus on Dukkha as Pain, Suffering, Misery Has led many to think of Buddhism as pessimistic, negative, morbid. Neither optimistic nor pessimistic. REALISTIC. Does not lull us into a fool’s paradise. Story of the good physician.
-6- Happiness Sense – pleasure & renunciation, Attachment & detachment, Even the highest states of enlightenment – All are dukkha.
-7- Buddha’s Realism: 3 things to understand with regard to life & sense pleasures 1Attraction or enjoyment – these are wonderful if there is no attachment! 2Evil consequence, danger, or dissatisfaction – result from clinging. 3Freedom or liberation – comes with the full acceptance of continual change.
-8- …discussion… Enjoyment of people you like and love… Death, change of heart, change of circumstances – if you are attached – there is danger of sadness, unreasonableness, foolish behavior.
-9- …discussion… If you are liberated, you accept the pain and sorrow of separation as necessary – leading to acceptance and eventual freedom from pain and sorrow. These three things are true with regard to all enjoyment in life. This realistic knowledge allows more joy!!
-10- Three Aspects of Dukkha 1Ordinary Suffering (dukkha-dukkha) 2Dukkha as produced by change (viparinama- dukkha) 3Dukkha as conditioned states (samkhara- dukha)
-11- Discussion: Ordinary Suffering Birth – Old Age – Sickness – Death – Association w/Unpleasant Persons & Conditions – Separation from Beloved Ones & Pleasant Conditions – Not Getting What We Want – Grief – Distress ALL SUCH FORMS OF PHYSICAL & MENTAL SUFFERING OR PAIN
-12- Discussion: Dukka Produced by Change A happy feeling, a happy situation, changes sooner or later. It is not permanent. When it changes, it produces pain, suffering, unhappiness.
-13- Dukkha produced by Conditioned States EGO – “I” – One’s “Self” – “Being”: According to Buddhist philosophy is ONLY A COMBINATION OF EVER-CHANGING PHYSICAL AND MENTAL FORCES & ENERGIES. These are divided into 5 groups known as The Five Aggregates.
-14- The Five Aggregates 1Matter (The 4 Great Elements & their Derivatives) 2 Sensations 3Perceptions 4Mental Formations 5Consciousness
-15- 1 st Aggregate: Matter The 4 Great Elements (Solidity, Fluidity, Heat & Motion) The Derivatives of the 4 Great Elements: Senses SenseOrganPerceptual Object 1.SightEyeVisible Form 2.HearingEarSound 3.SmellNoseOdor 4.TasteTongueFood, etc. 5.TouchBodyTangible Objects 6.(also some concepts or mind-objects)
-16- 2 nd Aggregate: Sensations All physical sensations (as experienced through the 5 senses of the 1 st aggregate) Plus Mind-objects (conceptions, thoughts, ideas) Buddhist “Mind” is a faculty or organ, like the eye or ear. It is not spirit as opposed to matter. Buddhism does not recognize a “spirit” as opposed to matter.
-17- 3 rd Aggregate: Perceptions The recognition of sensory information, including mental conceptions
-18- 4 th Aggregate: Mental Formations Volitional activities: “Having willed, one acts through body, speech and mind.” Mental construction, activity which directs the mind in good, bad, or neutral activity includes attention, will, wisdom, hate, (see full list p. 23) often carried into action in the world. AKA Karma
-19- 5 th Aggregate: Consciousness Awareness – NOT RECOGNITION – of the presence of an object [an other] Named according to the condition upon which it arises. [Example of the wood fire] Depends on matter – may wax or wane through the other 4 aggregates.
-20- Discussion: The 5 Aggregates What we call a ‘being’ or ‘individual’ or ‘I’ is only a convenient name for the [momentary arising and disappearing] of the combination of these five groups. A ‘Flashing into the universe!’
-21- No Atman There is no unchanging substance within the aggregates – Nothing that can be called a permanent self. There is no unmoving mover behind the movement.
-22- Not Melancholy or Scary The Buddhist is happy, Calm & Serene Although there is suffering in life, the Buddhist is neither gloomy, angry, not impatient with it [for “self” or others]. Nevertheless, he/she works to end suffering.
-23- No Sin, but some evils Repugnance Hatred Ill-will toward living beings, and [their]suffering