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Basic Beliefs and Practices

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Beliefs and Practices"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Beliefs and Practices
The basic doctrines of early Buddhism, which remain common to all Buddhism, include the four noble truths.

2 The Three Refuges (Jewels)
The Buddha The Dharma (teachings, doctrine) The Sangha (the Order)

3 The Teachings of the Buddha
The Four Noble Truths

4 Preface to the Four Noble Truths: The Middle Path
Two extremes to be avoided: (1) Hedonism (2) Asceticism By avoiding these two extremes, we discover a Middle Path, a path which opens the eyes, which bestows understanding, and which leads to peace of mind, to wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana. This Middle Path is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Views, Right Intent, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration

5 1. The Noble Truth of Suffering

6 2. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering
Tanha *Some traditions make (c) a craving for prosperity or for personal happiness.

7 3. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering

8 4. The Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the cessation of suffering

9 Elaboration of the Noble Eightfold Path
Right views (Samma ditthi) Right intent (Samma sankappa) Right speech (Samma vaca) Right conduct (Samma kammanta) Right livelihood (Samma ajiva) Right effort (Samma vayama) Right mindfulness (Samma sati) Right concentration (Samma samadhi) Wisdom (prajna) Morality (sila) Meditation (samadhi)

10 1. Right Views Wisdom The Four Noble Truths
(Eightfold Path, continued) Wisdom 1. Right Views The Four Noble Truths The doctrine of no-self (anatta, anatman) Transitoriness (anicca): impermanence The Five Components or Aggregates (skandhas) of human personhood Interdependent Origination Karma & Samsara (rebirth) Nirvana (what is it?)

11 The Five Components (skandhas) of personhood
(No-self, cont’d) The Five Components (skandhas) of personhood Body (rupa) Person Sensation (vedana) Consciousness (vinnana) Perception (sanna) Volition (sankhara) Mind (nama)

12 The doctrine of Interdependent Origination (Paticca Samuppada)
(No-self, cont’d) The doctrine of Interdependent Origination (Paticca Samuppada) The interdependence & relativity of all things No separate beings No distinct individuals No eternal essences No "own-natures"

13 2. Right Intent (Resolution)
(Eightfold Path, continued) 2. Right Intent (Resolution) Wisdom Right intent or resolution is the intent or resolution to live & act in accordance with right views.

14 3. Right Speech Morality No lying No slander No harsh or rude talk
(Eightfold Path, continued) 3. Right Speech Morality No lying No slander No harsh or rude talk No profanity No impolite or abusive language No idle or foolish chatter Strive to use language meaningfully & usefully Learn to maintain “noble silence”

15 4. Right Conduct Morality Eat moderately & not after noon.
(Eightfold Path, continued) 4. Right Conduct Morality Eat moderately & not after noon. Stay away from dancing, singing, & dramatic spectacles. Do not use garlands, scents, unguents, or ornaments. Do not use high or broad beds. Do not accept gold or silver (money in general?). No harming & killing No stealing No lying & deceitfulness No sexual immorality No use of intoxicants The Five Precepts (for everybody) & the Ten Precepts (for monks & nuns)

16 5. Right Livelihood (Vocation)
(Eightfold Path, continued) Morality 5. Right Livelihood (Vocation) Choose professions that promote life, peace, & spiritual progress (especially life in the Specifically prohibited professions: poison peddler, slave trader, prostitute, butcher, manufacturer & trader of liquor & other intoxicants, weapons manufacturer & trader, tax collector, caravan trader.

17 6. Right Effort (purification of the mind)
(Eightfold Path, continued) 6. Right Effort (purification of the mind) Preventing evil & unwholesome states of mind from arising Getting rid of such states of mind that may already exist Bringing about good & wholesome states of mind Developing & perfecting good & wholesome states of mind that are already present Meditation

18 Focusing of attention on:
Meditation 7. Right Mindfulness (Eightfold Path, continued) Focusing of attention on: Activities of the body (breathing, walking, sitting, eating, heartbeat, etc.) Feelings (anger, fear, joy, pleasure, pain, etc.) States of mind (thoughts, ideas, etc.) Ways of conceptualizing things (the Four Noble Truths, the Wheel of Becoming, etc.)

19 8. Right Concentration The highest level of Meditation
(Eightfold Path, continued) 8. Right Concentration One-pointed concentration The four absorptions: Detachment from all sense objects & from negative states of mind; thought processes accompanied by joy Cessation of all mental activities; internal calm, peace of mind, joy to the point of great elation Cessation of all passions & prejudices; continued sense of joy Cessation of joy; total tranquillity & equanimity -- Nirvana (& arhatship) Preliminary concentration on the Four Sublime Moods: love, compassion, cheerfulness, & impartiality

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