Presentation on theme: "Basic Beliefs and Practices"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic Beliefs and Practices The basic doctrines of early Buddhism, which remain common to all Buddhism, include the four noble truths.
2 The Three Refuges (Jewels) The BuddhaThe Dharma (teachings, doctrine)The Sangha (the Order)
3 The Teachings of the Buddha The Four Noble Truths
4 Preface to the Four Noble Truths: The Middle Path Two extremes to be avoided:(1) Hedonism(2) AsceticismBy avoiding these two extremes, we discover a Middle Path, a path which opens the eyes, which bestows understanding, and which leads to peace of mind, to wisdom, to full enlightenment, to Nirvana.This Middle Path is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely, Right Views, Right Intent, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration
10 1. Right Views Wisdom The Four Noble Truths (Eightfold Path, continued)Wisdom1. Right ViewsThe Four Noble TruthsThe doctrine of no-self (anatta, anatman)Transitoriness (anicca): impermanenceThe Five Components or Aggregates (skandhas) of human personhoodInterdependent OriginationKarma & Samsara (rebirth)Nirvana (what is it?)
11 The Five Components (skandhas) of personhood (No-self, cont’d)The Five Components (skandhas) of personhoodBody (rupa)PersonSensation (vedana)Consciousness (vinnana)Perception (sanna)Volition (sankhara)Mind (nama)
12 The doctrine of Interdependent Origination (Paticca Samuppada) (No-self, cont’d)The doctrine of Interdependent Origination (Paticca Samuppada)The interdependence & relativity of all thingsNo separate beingsNo distinct individualsNo eternal essencesNo "own-natures"
13 2. Right Intent (Resolution) (Eightfold Path, continued)2. Right Intent (Resolution)WisdomRight intent or resolutionis the intent or resolution to live & actin accordance with right views.
14 3. Right Speech Morality No lying No slander No harsh or rude talk (Eightfold Path, continued)3. Right SpeechMoralityNo lyingNo slanderNo harsh or rude talkNo profanityNo impolite or abusive languageNo idle or foolish chatterStrive to use language meaningfully & usefullyLearn to maintain “noble silence”
15 4. Right Conduct Morality Eat moderately & not after noon. (Eightfold Path, continued)4. Right ConductMoralityEat moderately & not after noon.Stay away from dancing, singing, & dramatic spectacles.Do not use garlands, scents, unguents, or ornaments.Do not use high or broad beds.Do not accept gold or silver (money in general?).No harming & killingNo stealingNo lying & deceitfulnessNo sexual immoralityNo use of intoxicantsThe Five Precepts (for everybody) & the Ten Precepts (for monks & nuns)
16 5. Right Livelihood (Vocation) (Eightfold Path, continued)Morality5. Right Livelihood (Vocation)Choose professions that promote life, peace, & spiritual progress (especially life in theSpecifically prohibited professions: poison peddler, slave trader, prostitute, butcher, manufacturer & trader of liquor & other intoxicants, weapons manufacturer & trader, tax collector, caravan trader.
17 6. Right Effort (purification of the mind) (Eightfold Path, continued)6. Right Effort (purification of the mind)Preventing evil & unwholesome states of mind from arisingGetting rid of such states of mind that may already existBringing about good & wholesome states of mindDeveloping & perfecting good & wholesome states of mind that are already presentMeditation
18 Focusing of attention on: Meditation7. Right Mindfulness(Eightfold Path, continued)Focusing of attention on:Activities of the body (breathing, walking, sitting, eating, heartbeat, etc.)Feelings (anger, fear, joy, pleasure, pain, etc.)States of mind (thoughts, ideas, etc.)Ways of conceptualizing things (the Four Noble Truths, the Wheel of Becoming, etc.)
19 8. Right Concentration The highest level of Meditation (Eightfold Path, continued)8. Right ConcentrationOne-pointed concentrationThe four absorptions:Detachment from all sense objects & from negative states of mind; thought processes accompanied by joyCessation of all mental activities; internal calm, peace of mind, joy to the point of great elationCessation of all passions & prejudices; continued sense of joyCessation of joy; total tranquillity & equanimity -- Nirvana (& arhatship)Preliminary concentration on the Four Sublime Moods: love, compassion, cheerfulness, & impartiality