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Greek and Roman Sculpture A Brief Survey. Ancient Greece  Mycenaean Civilization: 1900 – 1100 B.C.E.  The Dark Ages: 1100 – 800 B.C.E.  Archaic Age:

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Presentation on theme: "Greek and Roman Sculpture A Brief Survey. Ancient Greece  Mycenaean Civilization: 1900 – 1100 B.C.E.  The Dark Ages: 1100 – 800 B.C.E.  Archaic Age:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Greek and Roman Sculpture A Brief Survey

2 Ancient Greece  Mycenaean Civilization: 1900 – 1100 B.C.E.  The Dark Ages: 1100 – 800 B.C.E.  Archaic Age: 800 – 479 B.C.E.  Hellenic (Classical) Age: 479 – 323 B.C.E.  Hellenistic Age: 323 B.C.E. – 31 B.C.E.

3 Mycenaean Civilization: 1900 – 1100 B.C.E.  Feudal Society  Fortress-Palaces on Hilltops  Skilled craftsmen, artists – ceramics, metalwork (gold, bronze)  Extensive trade, warfare in Eastern Mediterranean  Trojan War, ca B.C.E.

4 The Dark Ages: 1100 – 800 B.C.E.  Dorian Invasions (Greeks) destroy Mycenaean Civilization  Writing System, skilled craftsmen, artisans disappear  Contact with other Eastern Mediterranean cultures very limited.

5 Archaic Age: 800 – 479 B.C.E.  Greek Culture begins to emerge  Epic Poetry: Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey: ca. 800 B.C.E. Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey: ca. 800 B.C.E.  Lyric Poetry: Sappho’s Poems: ca. 600 B.C.E. Sappho’s Poems: ca. 600 B.C.E.  Architecture: The Doric Temple Temple of Hera at Paestum, ca B.C.E. Temple of Hera at Paestum, ca B.C.E. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, 510 B.C.E. Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, 510 B.C.E.  Politics: Cleisthenes est. democracy in Athens: 508 B.C.E. Cleisthenes est. democracy in Athens: 508 B.C.E.

6 Archaic Age Sculpture  Kouros – nude male statues  Kore – clothed female statues A new emphasis on the beauty of human body A new emphasis on the beauty of human body Seem to have depicted human heroes; Seem to have depicted human heroes; Seem to have been used as memorials Seem to have been used as memorials Early Kouros show strong Egyptian influence Early Kouros show strong Egyptian influence

7 New York Kouros: ca B.C.E.

8 Photo: Keith Schengili- Roberts Used by permission Pharoah Menkaure and Chief Queen, ca B.C.E.

9 New York Kouros  Egyptian Influence Left foot forward Left foot forward Clenched fists Clenched fists Rigid arms at sides Rigid arms at sides Stylized hair Stylized hair Frontality Frontality  Greek Innovation Greater attempt to represent human body accurately, e.g. knees Greater attempt to represent human body accurately, e.g. knees

10 Peplos Kore, Archaic Period, Limestone, ca. 600 B.C.E.

11 Peplos Kore, Archaic Period, Limestone, ca. 600 B.C.E. Found on the Acropolis of Athens Egyptian pose modified; less rigid Missing left hand extended forward (not across chest) Right arm is bent forward slightly Hair is looser, less wig-like Clothing is not given much detail, but the shape of the body is more clearly depicted Archaic Smile/Facial Expression overall – more natural Made of marble

12 Modern Attempt at recreating original painted version of the Peplos Kore, Archaic Period Cambridge University, Chiton – blue garment visible near ankles Peplos – red garment worn over chiton Meniskos – umbrella-like head covering

13 Anavyssos Kouros: ca. 530 B.C.E. Memorial to a young man named Kroisos who died in battle Inscription on base of statue reads: “Stand and mourn for Kroisos now dead Whom wild Ares struck down at the battleline's head.” Material: Parian marble

14 Used by permission Anavyssos Kouros On display at National Archaeological Museum in Athens

15 Classical Greek Sculpture (Hellenic) Severe Style High classical style

16 Kritios Boy, Acropolis Museum in Athens, Marble, ca. 480 B.C.E. Classical/Severe Style Photo: Marsyas, 2007 Wikipedia Commons Used by permission

17 Kritios Boy, detail Photo: Marsyas, 2007 Wikipedia Commons Used by permission

18 Severe Style: Transition from Archaic to Classical intended to convey nobility and dignity intended to convey nobility and dignity First phase of Greek classical sculpture First phase of Greek classical sculpture

19 Kritios Boy Contrapposto (counterpoise): a posture that places the body's weight on one leg and uses the other leg as a support. Trend toward greater naturalism Muscles/anatomy skillfully represented; Slight tilt of the head and contrapposto undermine frontality

20 High Classical Style  Attempted to represent motion  Attempted to represent ideal beauty

21 Doryphorus (Spear-Bearer), ca. 440 B.C.E.

22 Doryphorus, ca. 440 B.C.E.  Marble copy of bronze original by Polykleitos  Polykleitos – developed a canon of beauty based on proportional relationships among body parts.  Example: the ideal ratio head/body size is 1/7.  Opposite arms and legs balance each other

23 Classical: Zeus Throwing a Lightning Bolt or Poseidon Throwing a Spear ca. 460 B.C.E. Bronze, 6’11” high

24 Hellenistic Sculpture Melodrama & Motion

25 By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/antmoose/ antmoose] {{cc-by-2.0}} This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.Creative CommonsAttribution 2.0 The Dying Gaul, ca B.C.E. Roman copy of bronze orig.

26 Public Domain Laocoon and His Sons Attacked by Serpents (Hellenistic) B.C.E. marble perhaps original)

27 Laocoon, Detail Photo: Jastrow, PD: Self

28 Winged Victory of Samothrace/Nike of Samothrace

29 Marcus Aurelius, fragments of a bronze portrait, after 170 CE. Photograph: Jastrow Used by permission.

30 Marcus Aurelius - bust in the Louvre, Paris Source: English Wikipedia, original upload 4 June 2004 by ChrisOChrisO

31 Bust of Cato the Elder Public domain image.

32 Costantino-antmoose.jpg Photo by Anthony Majanlahti, June 4, Used by permissionAnthony Majanlahti Bronze head of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, Rome. 4 th c. C.E.Constantine IMusei CapitoliniRome

33 Head of the colossal marble statue of Constantine I, Musei Capitolini, RomeConstantine IMusei CapitoliniRome Photographer: Markus Bernet Date: 07/10/2004 Used by permissionMarkus Bernet


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