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1 Survey of Selected Western Classics Unit 10-11: 西洋戲劇 : Oscar Wilde, “The Importance of Being Earnest” 授課教師 : 國立臺灣大學外國語文學系 王寶祥 副教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創 CC 「姓名標示-

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Presentation on theme: "1 Survey of Selected Western Classics Unit 10-11: 西洋戲劇 : Oscar Wilde, “The Importance of Being Earnest” 授課教師 : 國立臺灣大學外國語文學系 王寶祥 副教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創 CC 「姓名標示-"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Survey of Selected Western Classics Unit 10-11: 西洋戲劇 : Oscar Wilde, “The Importance of Being Earnest” 授課教師 : 國立臺灣大學外國語文學系 王寶祥 副教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創 CC 「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版 本課程指定教材為 : Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde. New York: Vintage Books, Barnet, Sylvan, et al (eds). Types of Drama: Plays and Contexts. 8th ed. New York: Longman, 請讀者自行準備。

2 Oscar Wilde Oct 16, Born in Dublin, Ireland Anglo-Irish stock Mother a feminist and Irish nationalist “Speranza of the Nation” Father Sir William Wilde a surgeon 2

3 Residence in fashionable district of Dublin 3

4 Trinity College, Dublin Read classics Scholarship to Oxford Oxford Hellenism: 1. Reaction against industrialism 2. Religious revival of Anglicanism (Cardinal Newman) 3. Secular revival of Greek cult of physical beauty and youth (Gladstone to Pater) 4

5 Oxford education, 1878 Magdalen College, Oxford “ Oxonian ” Studied with John Ruskin and Walter Pater Tutor-pupil homoeroticism Boy worship 1879 graduated with honors, prize for first poem Ravenna 1881 Poems published 5

6 Victorianism Reign of Queen Victoria Pan-European doctrine of Empire scientific materialism moral conservatism utilitarianism colonialism and empire woman as “angel of the house” rise of sexuality studies 6

7 Dandyism: theatrical to the core Baudelaire on Beau Brummel and modern flaneur as dandy artiste Dandyism: excessive focus on fashion and appearance aestheticism vs. utilatarianism Aristocratic cult of idleness and frivolity 20 th century notion of “camp” aesthetics: surface and style, exaggeration and extravagance You are what you look, how is done over what is done Dandy as an artist, his creation his life: “dandyism is the assertion of the absolute modernity of beauty” 7

8 Beau Brummel: the dandiest of them all 8

9 Aesthetic dualism Beauty over Thought Style over content Surface over depth Personality over functionality Culture over nature The ephemeral over the permanent Sin over virtue Art over life Decadence over regeneration Masquerade over face Illusion over reality Lies over truth 9

10 “Straight” Wilde Married with children Wife Constance Lloyd 1883 Children Cyril and Vyvyan essay The Soul of Man Under Socialism (1891) an attack on poverty 10

11 Vera, or The Nihilist Early play Vera ( ) nihilism, aristocratic socialism, democracy Performed in New York in 1882 while Wilde was on his lecture tour 11

12 The queer Wilde /File:A_Wilde_time_3.jpg 12

13 Lord Alfred Douglas ( ) Longtime companion Son of Marquess Queensberry English translator of Wilde’s Salome Editor and publisher Landed in jail for libel against Winston Churchill Married with children, homophobic hysteric “Childe Alfred” by Shaw Biographer a 20-year old Oxford student 13

14 Oscar and Bosie Played by Stephen Fry and Jude Law in film 14

15 Fairy Tales: allegories of selfhood Happy Prince The House of Pomegranates The Selfish Giant The Birthday of Infanta “an attempt to mirror modern life in a form remote from reality". 15

16 1882 US lecture tour "ambassador" of the aesthetic doctrine Managed by D’Oyly Carte, producer of comic operas “I have nothing to declare except my genius” 16

17 Caricature by Max Beerbohm ca.1894 Half brother of director manager Beerbohm Tree 17

18 Caricatures by Illustrator Alfred Bryan On Wilde’s first “dramatic failure” in 1883 with Vera. Lady Windermere’s fan 18

19 Criticism: critic as artist The Decay of Lying (1891): defends art for art’s sake Self-reflexivity: “Art never expresses anything but itself” “Life imitates Art far more than Art imitates Life” “What the highest Criticism really is, is the record of one’s own soul” rather than history, which is concerned with events “Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of Art” The Critic as Artist (1891): favors vita contemplativa over vita activa Collapsing boundary between art (creative) and criticism (derivative) Derivativeness/digression as invention Self-invention as a continued re- writing/constructing/constituting of selfhoods Criticism as autobiography Self-invention as diary? (Cicely) Socratic dialogues best represent conflicted subjectivities 19

20 The Picture of Dorian Gray 1890 The only novel Manifesto of aestheticism and decadence androgyny 雌雄同體 Boy worship Life imitates art: dynamic of art and life, illusion and reality Helmut Berger (pic) 王大閎 > 20

21 Mrs. Pat and Forbes-Robertson Romeo and Juliet 21

22 Salome, 1891 莎樂美 Wilde as Salome in drag, transvestitism? Written in French for Sarah Bernhardt banned by Lord Chamberlain on religious grounds Opera by Richard Strauss 1905 Pater aestheticism (Salome) vs. Ruskin asceticism (John the Baptist)? 22

23 Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892) 少奶奶 / 溫夫人的扇子 First produced play An instant success Hypocrisy of high society Woman with a past Femme fatale, ingenue, and rake 1916 silent film by Fred Paul 1925 film by Ernst Lubitsch 劉別謙 1949 remake by Otto Preminger The Fan 23

24 A Good Woman (2004) Film adaptation of Lady Windermere set in the 1930s Amalfi coast Helen Hunt Scarlett Johansson 24

25 A Woman of No Importance (1893), produced by Beerbohm Tree Victorian melodrama: binary opposition of good and evil “people love a wicked aristocrat who seduces a virtuous maiden” A woman with a past “one can survive everything nowadays, except death, and live down anything except a good reputation” “One should never take sides in anything, earnestness follows shortly afterwards and the human being becomes a bore” 25

26 An Ideal Husband (1895) Unmasking the veneer of Victorian respectability Lord Goring “flawless dandy” as Wilde personified Lord Chiltern as the “ideal husband” involved in a political scandal Lady “with a past” blackmails Social critique: class and politics Hypocrisy of Victorian morality 1999 Rupert Everett as Goring /2000 James Wilby as Chiltern 26

27 The Importance of Being Earnest (1895) Actor-manager and matinee idol George Alexander as Jack Comedy of manners Continue and subvert Restoration comedy Masquerade and mistaken identity Witticisms and puns Critique of or complicity with Victorian dualism City/country, appearance/ reality, fiction/ truth, materialism/ spiritualism, trivial/ serious 27

28 Classic 1952 film Dame Edith Evans as Lady Bracknell Michael Redgrave as Jack John Gielgud in audio version 28

29 2002 film Starring Judi Dench, Rupert Everett, Colin Firth, Reese Witherspoon Cecily as a critic? (“the aim of the true critic is to try and chronicle his own moods”), “impressions” gleaned not from “actual life” from “what Art has touched” “To give an accurate description of what has never occurred is …an inalienable privilege of any man of parts and culture” --The Critic as Artist, Oscar Wilde 29

30 Portrait of Wilde by Toulouse-Lautrec

31 Lionized and feted by the society and the literati 34, Tite Street (formerly no. 16.) Tite Street in Chelsea, fashionable district 31

32 Evening News 1895 Labeled as a “sodomite” in public by Queensberry Marquess of Queensberry rules 32

33 Three trials of Wilde First modern celebrity trial Charges of sodomy, “gross indecency” Wilde filed libel suit against Queensberry Opposed appearance of Bosie in court as witness Sentenced to two years of hard labor 33

34 Gross Indecency: The Three Trials of Oscar Wilde (1997) Play by Moises Kaufman chronicling Wilde’s celebrity trials Putting art on trial 34

35 Reading Gaol It was “ misplaced faith in the prison-house of language, the reading gaol, that landed Wilde in the Reading Gaol ”. Valentine Cunningham De Profundis, long letter to Bosie Offspring changed name to Holland (Merlin Holland, Vyvyan ’ s son) 35

36 Post-Reading exile in Europe Nom de plume: Sebastian Melmoth Portrait by Walter Sickert Wilde’s visiting card 36

37 Monument by Jacob Epstein 1912.' Died destitute in Paris, 1900 accepted into the Roman Catholic Church the day before “ And alien tears will fill for him Pity's long-broken urn, For his mourners will be outcast men, And outcasts always mourn.” (The Ballad of Reading Gaol) 37

38 From Wilde to “Holland” Son denied admittance to Oxford Family refused accommodation at a Swiss hotel Forced to change name Grandson Merlin Holland, Wilde researcher 38

39 The Wilde Century Book by Alan Sinfield Wilde as a precursor of celebrity culture, self-publicity, self- aggrandizement Gay icon in queer movement postmodernist deconstruction pop culture (fashion, cult) postcolonial studies (Eagelton) Revival in theatre and film 39

40 Oscar Wilde (1936), a play by Leslie and Sewell Stokes Film adaptation (1960) with Robert Morley as Wilde and Ralph Richardson as Marquis’s lawyer Opens with the pair vacationing in Algiers 40

41 Saint Oscar by Terry Eagleton Field Day Company 1989 Stephen Rea as Wilde Irish humor, parable and paradox as subaltern language against British hierarchy 41

42 Tom Stoppard The Invention of Love (1997) Poet A. E. Housman an imagined exchange with Wilde Wilde’s apparition discourses on love Travesties (1974): James Joyce rehearsed Earnest in WWI Zurich 42

43 The Judas Kiss (1998) by David Hare Liam Neeson as Wilde Rupert Everett in 2012 revival fidelity tested in days before arrest To stay or to flee; love or freedom Cadogan hotel, London 43

44 版權聲明 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 2 Wikiquote: _Wilde.jpg 作者名稱 : Napoleon Sarony 作品描述 : Portrait of Oscar Wilde 使用者 : SF007 瀏覽日期 : 2014/02/24 3 國立臺灣大學外國語文學系 王寶祥 副教授以創 CC 「姓名標示-非商業 性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版授權 釋出。創 CC 「姓名標示-非商業 性-相同方式分享」台灣 3.0 版 44

45 頁碼頁碼 作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 4 Wikimedia Commons: eSalmonTrinityCollegeDublin.jpg 作者名稱 : Pablo Pérez, from Bilbao, Spain 作品描述 : Trinity College, Dublin 使用者 : Magnus Manske 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 5 WIKIPEDIA: n.jpg 作者名稱 : John Everett Millais ( ) 作品描述 : Portrait of John Ruskin, Ashmolean Museum 使用者 : Yann 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 45

46 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 6 Wikimedia Commons: Queen_Victoria_1887.jpg 作者名稱 : Alexander Bassano ( ) 作品描述 : Portrait of Queen Victoria 使用者 : DIREKTOR 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 8 The Culture Concept Pty Ltd: cle/beau-brummell-to-benedict- cumberbatch-savile-row-at-london cle/beau-brummell-to-benedict- cumberbatch-savile-row-at-london 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 46

47 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 8 Wonders & Marvels: /03/the-turn-of-the-leg.html 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 10 WIKIPEDIA: ilde_by_Napoleon_Sarony_( )_Number_18_b.jpeg 作者名稱 : Napoleon Sarony 作品描述 : Portrait of Oscar Wilde 使用者 : Svajcr 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 47

48 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 11 WIKIPEDIA: wilde23.jpg 作者名稱 : Alfred_Bryan 作品描述 : Willie Wilde comforting his brother Oscar Wilde after the failure of his play Vera; or, The Nihilists in the United States. 使用者 : Araujojoan96 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 12 WIKIPEDIA: _3.jpg 作者名稱 : Napoleon Sarony 作品描述 : Oscar Wilde, photographic print on card mount: albumen. 使用者 : Docu 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 48

49 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 13 Sonnet Central: 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 14 WIKIPEDIA: douglas.jpg 作品描述 : Wilde and Douglas, photograph taken in 使用者 : Magnus Manske 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 49

50 頁碼頁碼 作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 16 WIKIPEDIA: ilde_(Boston_Public_Library).jpg 作者名稱 : Boston Public Library 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 17 The City University of New York: y_matters/2003_march/beerbohm.html 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 50

51 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 18 WIKIPEDIA: willie-wilde23.jpg 作者名稱 : Alfred_Bryan 作品描述 : Willie Wilde comforting his brother Oscar Wilde after the failure of his play Vera; or, The Nihilists in the United States. 使用者 : Araujojoan96 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 18 Glarean Magazin: achim-ringelnatz/ 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 51

52 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 20 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 21 Victoria and Albert Museum: ender-ideology-and-separate-spheres- 19th-century/ 作品描述 : A scene from Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare, Lyceum Theatre, London,1895. 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 52

53 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 22 International Psychoanalysis: 2/09/02/salome-wilde-and-freud/ 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 23 WIKIPEDIA: _1949_poster.jpg 作品描述 : The Fan (1949 film) 使用者 : Bwmoll3 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 53

54 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 24 WIKIPEDIA: _Woman_film.jpg 作品描述 : A Good Woman film poster 使用者 : fuzzy510 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 25 WIKIPEDIA: rformance.jpg 作品描述 : A Woman of No Importance program from 1930 使用者 : Luke C 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 54

55 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 26 Victoria and Albert Museum: e-importance-of-being-earnest-first-stage- production/ 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 26 WIKIPEDIA: -_An_Ideal_Husband_- _You_brute!_You_coward!.jpg 作品描述 : "You brute! You coward!" from an anonymous artist's illustrations to Oscar Wilde's An Ideal Husband. 使用者 : Adam Cuerden 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 55

56 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 27 WIKIPEDIA: ortance_of_Being_Earnest_- _Cigarettecase.jpg 作品描述 : Photograph from Act 1 of the original production of The Importance of Being Earnest (1895). Photograph taken at St.James's Theatre, London 使用者 : Ramac 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 28 Started The Criterion Collection: importance-of-being-earnest importance-of-being-earnest 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 56

57 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 30 Olga's Gallery - Online Art Museum: lautrec/toulouse-lautrec63.html 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 31 WIKIPEDIA: use.JPG 作品描述 : Photo taken by User: Adam Carr, June 使用者 : Magnus Manske 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 57

58 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 32 Oscar Wilde Fan Club: tter-to-bosie-from-his-father-your- disgusted-so-called-father/ 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 33 WIKIPEDIA: detrial.jpg 作品描述 : The Wilde Trial as recorded in The Illustrated Police News, May 使用者 : Osado 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 58

59 頁碼頁碼 作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 34 Tectonic Theater Project: ss_Indecency.html ss_Indecency.html 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 37 Branch: es=ellen-crowell-oscar-wildes-tomb- silence-and-the-aesthetics-of-queer- memorial 作者名稱 : Ellen Crowell 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 59

60 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 39 The Independent: /europe/the-vatican-wakes-up-to-the- wisdom-of-oscar-wilde html 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 42 Cover Browser: ks-about-love/8 ks-about-love/8 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 60

61 頁碼作品版權圖示來源 / 作者 43 London Box Office judas-kiss-tickets 瀏覽日期 : 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。 61

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