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The Book of Joshua/Judges/Ruth

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1 The Book of Joshua/Judges/Ruth
God’s Fidelity

2 Joshua and Judges Joshua and Judges form a bridge (or transition) between the Pentateuch and the historical books They are called the “historical” b/c they show the theological formation (nature and will of God as revealed to humans) of the Hebrew nation over a long period of time.

3 Because they are in chronological order, we can say they are somewhat faithful to history

4 Two Sections It is divided into two major sections:
1. The miraculous conquest of the land by the tribes under Joshua’s leadership. 2. Dividing the land among the tribes and settling territorial and boundary disputes

5 Joshua Introduction God demonstrates His fidelity in giving to Israel the land he promised them for an inheritance

6 God fulfills His promise to be their God and make them His people.
God is the leader of this nation of independent tribes. There is no centralized Government authority

7 The occupation begins with the crossing of the Jordan and the conquest of Jericho

8 Not all 12 tribes wished to enter the Promised land-Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh found the land good, the water and forage for their sheep plentiful, and friendly neighbors They would however, honor their commitment to fight with the Hebrew nation-at least for a while.

9 Joshua 1-2 Joshua is accepted as leader The new generation
In 3 days they will move out The Israelites unconditionally accept Joshua as the leader The new generation Shows more deference (respect / admiration/submissiveness) to Joshua Follow most of his commands

10 The Spies and Rahab Joshua sends two spies into Jericho
Rahab’s house-(brothel) – a good place for information The King of Jericho finds out Sends troops to Rahab’s house She lies, says “they left” They were on the roof She had heard of God’s liberation of the Israelites from Egypt

11 Chapter 2 Rahab helps the spies escape Rahab is now a believer in God
One of the purposes of Exodus was to increase the belief among non-Israelites She and her family will be spared during the conquest (b/c of her belief) She marks her home with a red rope

12 Chapter 3-5 The Miracle of the Ark
The waters of the Jordan roll back as the Ark, carried by 1 priest from each tribe, enter the Jordan This gives continuity >Moses then Joshua. The parting of the Red sea, crossing the Jordan It also indicates the upcoming battles will be won by the power of God, not men.

13 The Memorial Stones God commands them to keep a stone from the riverbed to remember the miracle (this experience) In the future, when your children ask you, 'What do these stones mean?' 7 tell them that the flow of the Jordan was cut off before the ark of the covenant of the LORD. When it crossed the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. These stones are to be a memorial to the people of Israel forever."

14 Homework Bring in an object from home that you will keep as a memorial of the time spent here at CBHS. Bring in something you would feel comfortable sharing with the class

15 The New Generation The manna ceases- they can now feed themselves from this land of milk and honey Joshua has all circumcised. This obedience symbolizes a renewal of the covenant This is done at Gilgal (meaning to roll) God has rolled back Israel’s reproach (reprimand)

16 A man shows up with a drawn sword
He is neither for them or against them Joshua must take off his sandal-reminiscent of Moses and the burning bush God will be fighting for Israel But the war isn’t about Israel, it is about God’s purposes (“neither” side)

17 Chapter 6-7 The Walls of Jericho
“I will deliver Jericho into your hands” Soldiers and 7 priests walk around the city once a day for 6 days On the 7th day they walk around 7 times, then blow the trumpets and shout The walls collapse and Israel takes Jericho

18 Joshua 6:21-24 21And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword…  24And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein: only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD.

19 Herem This was a practice of many primitive tribes.
When a city was captured and placed under “herem” all was divided into 2 classifications: 1. Sacred 2. Profane

20 National Survival/Will of the gods
Anything judged profane was to be destroyed. Anything considered sacred was taken over for religious purposes. Does this kind of brutality seem shocking to you? Remember, this is a time and place which did not share our outlook. It was a mater of national survival and success in war was identified with the will of the gods

21 The tearing down of an entire city would be an enormous task – as well as rebuilding a new one. It’s not likely the “herem” was ever really practiced (at least on a large scale)

22 The “herem” was seen more as an ideal that should be accomplished, not necessarily the actual destruction

23 The writer is emphasizing that Israel put all its trust in God alone during war and sought nothing for itself

24 Defeat at Ai Why were the Israelites defeated at Ai?
Someone had broken the covenant-a soldier had taken what belonged to God Achan had stolen gold/silver (should have been used for religious purposes) Achan is “cut off”. He and his family are buried with their belongings Next time Israel is successful

25 Can you see how your actions effect others around you?
Can you see how you cut yourself “off” from those you love when you lie, steal, cheat, etc. (when we are selfish)?

26 Chapter 9-12 Gibeonites deceive Joshua They are afraid of Israel
They dress like poor people and make the Israelites believe they’re travelers from “outside” the Promised land Without going over this with God (i.e. we would pray), Joshua makes an oath never to attack them Eventually the truth comes out and Gibeon becomes servants of Israel

27 Hewers of wood and drawers of water
These were the people living in the lowest social classes of the community

28 What is an Oath It is a solemn appeal to a deity-or some revered person Is an oath binding when the one giving it is deceived? How binding is it?

29 Miraculous Conquest Hail storms aid in killing many
The sun stands still at Joshua’s request until Israel wins (The crowing rooster/raining before the game ends) Nothing is impossible for God. The Lord fought for Israel Israel has conquered the Promised land-the inheritance has taken place

30 Division of land to the 12 Tribes of Israel
The Twelve Tribes Manasseh Asher Zebulun Issachar Ephraim Benjamin Dan Gad Judah Naphtali Simeon Reuben

31 Homework Make a sketch of your 8th grade cafeteria and how the 8th grade class was grouped for lunch. Identify in a respectful way, what gifts each group (clique) brought to the school. Write them on the other side of the sheet. Identify and record the positive and negative characteristics of the cliques. Identify and record common bonds and events that unite the groups into a community.

32 How is your current freshman class here at CBHS grouped?
Is it united? If not, what are some values/beliefs that could help unite it?-or strengthen the unity? What about the school as a whole?

33 Joshua 13-22 Roll the dice-The Holy Land is divided
Joshua and the High Priest Eleazar divide the land using sacred dice Just how many tribes are there? There are actually 13. Joseph’s is spilt between his 2 sons Manasseh and Ephraim (remember, Jacob adopted them as his own) The tribe of Levi received no land-why? They were given the priestly functions. The priests needed to be spread out – 48 cities between the tribes and 6 cities of refuge.

34 Cities of refuge What were these cities for?
For people who accidentally killed another-to protect them from the vengeance of the victim’s family Do we have a moral obligation today to protect (offer sanctuary) to innocent people from countries who are trying to escape persecution/murder?

35 Chapter 23 Joshua’s Farewell
Joshua emphasizes: The Lord has defeated their opponents therefore- Be strong / Follow the Law Don’t mingle with other nations Don’t worship or swear oaths to false gods

36 Chapter 24 -Renewal of the Covenant/Joshua’s Death
This assembly renewing the covenant made at Mt. Sinai is an important event in Israel’s history. Shechem thus becomes the earliest religious center for the Israelite tribes The renewal links the past and present together (remember, this conquest occurs over a long period of time)- the groups not formally a part of the Exodus were formally initiated into the covenantal community

37 Anamnesis This continual bringing up to the present (linking past to present) is how the Hebrews maintained their history. This linking of past and present is called ANAMNESIS The liturgical celebration of the Mass links the saving actions of Jesus with people in the present

38 What are the 2 major parts of the Mass?
Word/Eucharist How does each part relate to the past?

39 Covenant Renewed Don’t ally with or marry “Pagans”
Why the emphasis on this? The renewal assembles all of Israel Lists the continual support of God Shows God’s fidelity-every promise has been kept by the Lord They confirm they will solely worship God- “As for me and my household, we will serve the Lord”

40 Joshua’s Death After Joshua dies, the Israelites are left leaderless.
The next leaders will be the Judges. They will be in charge of small areas or tribes. There will be no other leaders of all the people until the time of the kings

41 The Book of Judges

42 Folk Heroes Get into your groups
Make a list of some folk heroes of our time - religious figures, singers, athletes, astronauts, scientists, political activists, etc. List the qualities and/or achievements that make them stand out

43 The Books Purpose To show that the fortunes of Israel depended upon their obedience or disobedience to God’s Law Whenever they rebelled against Him, they were oppressed. When they repented, he raised up judges to deliver them

44 The Moral Pattern of Judges
The Israelites are unfaithful to God and worship false gods God punishes them through foreign oppression They repent and ask God to forgive them God raises up a savior to rescue them- militarily through a judge


46 We Mirror Israel Our tragedies, like those of Israel, are a result of forgetting our call to serve God and do what’s right. When Israel forgets to reveal the one God to all nations, it falls into selfishness, apprehensiveness, blindness, and ends up dominated by idol worshiping neighbors. Can you see the parallel to our lives?

47 What was the Purpose of the Judges?
The Judges took care of legal matters but was more of a military leader Arose in time of great need. They would lead the tribes during the rest of their lifetime The position was not based on descendents The Judge was not in control of all the tribes at once There are 12 Judges – major and minor

48 Major Judges Minor Judges
1. Othniel 2. Ehud 3. Barak (w/Deborah) 4. Gideon 5. Jephthah 6. Samson 1. Shamgar 2. Tola 3. Jair 4. Ibzan 5. Elon 6. Abdon

49 Judges 1-3 Othniel is the first Judge
The people are worshiping false gods God allows Cushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia to conquer them They cry out- Othniel defeats the enemy

50 Ehud How quickly we forget Eglon (Moabite) conquers Israel
Ehud is in charge of the tribute to Moab Ehud is left handed-what makes this significant? The guards miss the knife when he’s frisked Ehud stabs the king, escapes, and the Israelites lie in wait for the Moabites as they pursue Ehud

51 Shamgar After Ehud came Shamgar
He strikes down six hundred Philistines with an ox goad He too saves Israel

52 Chapter 4-5 Deborah & Barak
Deborah is referred to as both judge and prophet God reveals to her that Barak is to lead an army against Sisera (Jabin’s general)

53 Outraged at Sisera’s desertion, Jael hammers a tent spike through Sisera’s skull while he sleeps. How’s that for hospitality? These two women are held in esteem despite their gender roles

54 Chapter 5 Canticle of Deborah
The canticle praises Jael. Jael is active and forceful In contrast with the Canaanite women who are passive and submissive, waiting and looking out the windows at their husbands / soldiers as they bring back spoils and women Are women still seen in this way today?

55 Chapter 6 Gideon This account follows the same format-the Israelites worship false gods (Baal) The Midianites destroy the produce of the land God raises up Gideon as a judge Gideon is reluctant. He’s hiding in the wine press-needs a sign

56 A Reluctant Warrior God sees something in him we don’t
Gideon is eventually convinced to become judge Why is reluctance such a common theme in the Bible?

57 Destroy the alter to Baal
The alter is on his property (his father’s) What does this tell us? Gideon destroys the temple to Baal (the storm god) The people call for Gideon’s death His father Joash intervenes. If Baal is a god, let him kill Gideon himself From this Gideon is given the nickname Jerubbaal = “let Baal take action”

58 Gideon wants certainty
Gideon asks for another sign He asks that his wool fleece remain wet while the morning ground remain dry The next day the opposite happens He gets his signs, and he goes to war

59 Chapter 7 Trimming the Army
Gideon is rebuked by God-his army is too large God wants the credit to be divine Gideon trims the army from 32,000 down to 300 The river – those who drank from their hands were chosen These were the soldiers who were reliable; alert, standing ready to resist attack. The others were careless, undependable

60 The Dream 7:13-14 The barley represents the agricultural Hebrews.
The tent represents the nomadic Midianites The overthrow of the tent indicates the victory of the Hebrews over the Midianites

61 Defeat of Midian The army is divided into 3 companies
All have horns and empty jars with torches inside them They reach the edge of the camp, blow the horns, break the jars It works. The Midianites think the forces are much bigger than 300

62 Why Did God Pick Gideon? God is the liberator. The judges are God’s instruments Gideon is offered kingship over the Hebrews He refuses, since God is their king (ruler)

63 Battles of Gideon

64 Chapter 9-11 Abimelech is proclaimed king, but biblical writers do not recognize him as such. His savage behavior excludes him from most list of judges as well A WOMAN drops a millstone on his head

65 Jephthah Ammonites are next to oppress Israel They cry out
Jephthah is appointed judge He is the son of a prostitute. Expelled from his Gileadite family He foolishly vows, that if victorious, he will sacrifice whoever first comes to meet him on his return

66 On his triumphant return, Jephthah is greeted by his only child, his beloved daughter.

67 Jephthah’s daughter asks for two months of mourning
To bear children was very important. She is mourning the fact that she will die childless Israelite maidens mourn each year for four days in her memory

68 These type vows indicate the primitive notion of God
Is God O.K. with this? Oaths are very, very important but murder is really, really bad Jephthah’s promise turns victory into tragedy The lesson reminds the reader that human sacrifice is FORBIDDEN God was already with him – there was no need to make the oath

69 Chapter 12 Ibzan judges Israel 7 years Elon judges10 years
Abdon judges8 years

70 Chapter 13 Samson The Philistines have dominated Israel for 40 yrs.
Samson’s mother was barren. An angel tells her she will conceive The son she bears will be a Nazarite (consecrated to God-no strong drink/never cut his hair or beard) He was strong-but not the brightest of minds

71 Chapter 14-15 Samson does many things he shouldn’t be doing
He wants to marry a Philistine (non-Israelite) He gives a riddle for a bet His wife coaxes the answer from him and gives it to her kinsmen She is given away to his best man He kills 1,000 Philistines with the jawbone of an ass

72 The Honey in the Carcass
This incident suggests that goodness can be found in unlikely places – and in unlikely people

73 Chapter 16 Delilah Love must be blind
Was it love, arrogance, or stupidity that compels Samson to tell Delilah his secret? While he sleeps, she cuts his hair and binds him They gouge out his eyes and make him grind flour

74 Samson's hair grows back
He’s brought to the Temple of Dagon (god of grain) They gloat over him and marvel-he’s huge, but blind He is chained between two pillars holding up the roof He prays for one last bit of strength He collapses the building killing himself and the Philistines

75 The Lesson of Samson God can use peoples’ selfish impulses to do good
The Philistines and Israelites do terrible things to each other “I only did to them what they did to me” With this attitude, you all end up dead

76 Chapter 17-21 17:6 “In those days everyone did what they thought best”
Theft Corruption Lust Prostitution Homosexuality

77 19 Outrage at Gibeah A Levite and a concubine (like a wife, but has less status and rights) Travel into Benjamin territory and stay the night with a man and woman of the town During the night the people demand the Levite to “abuse him.” (have sex)

78 The man of the house offers his daughter
He sends out the Levite’s concubine who is raped. She ends up dead on the doorstep The Levite cuts her into 12 pieces and sends them to the tribes The tribes rise up in civil revolt against Benjamin and almost wipe them out They are allowed to take non-Israelites to replenish the tribe

79 Moral Relativism Morality is not subjective – “What I think is right is right.” It is inconsistent / contradictory When I take something it’s O.K. (finders keepers, losers weepers) When something is taken from me, it not fair (unjust) Morality must be consistent If something is false, it’s not true “A” cannot be “A” and not “A” at the same time The key is what Jesus taught: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you

80 They need a king The last line of the book of Judges summarizes the book perfectly: In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.

81 They need a king so they no longer do just “what is right in their own eyes.”
They need guidance and punishment when necessary

82 The Pious Moabite The Book of Ruth

83 Ruth Introduction These events concentrate on the story of one family and take place during the time period of judges This is a book of Filial piety And there is a divine reward for such piety (she’s the great grandmother of David) Ruth’s spirit of self sacrifice and moral integrity is a foreshadowing of the messianic salvation of Jesus

84 This book shows us how God could create a blessed ending out of a difficult situation.
Israel's noble King David had a Gentile as his great-grandmother In Ruth’s concern for the survival of her mother-in-law, her strength of character exceeds that of some of the judges

85 Elemilech (means “God is my King”) and Naomi take their 2 sons to Moab to escape the famine
Elimelech dies and the 2 sons marry Moabite women (Orpah /Ruth) Both sons die leaving Naomi without children or grand- children (levirate law doesn’t apply) Chapter 1

86 Naomi and her daughter-in-laws journey back to (Judah) Bethlehem
For the sake of prosperity, Orpah returns to her people. Ruth stays with Naomi. Naomi’s love for these women is evident. She’s resigning herself to seeing the end of her husbands family line by encouraging them to go to their land and find new husbands

87 Ruth 1:16 “Wherever you go I will go, wherever you lodge, I will lodge, your people shall be my people, and your God my God…” This oath is a confirmation of Ruth’s fidelity and piety. She will abandon her country and her pagan worship

88 Definitions Glean- gathering grain left by those who cut down the stalks of the field. Once cut, the grain must be loosened from the stalks. It is spread on the Threshing floor and are beaten, walked on, or loosened with a studded board pulled by an animal

89 Winnowing - tossing into the air with winnowing shovel on a windy day
Husk - the thin outer coating of the grain Chaff - the paper-thin husk carried away by the breeze. The heavy grain drops to the ground. Ephah - A little more than a bushel

90 Chapter 2 Ruth gleans from a field belonging to Boaz
The poor, widowed, orphan, stranger, was allowed to glean from the excess at harvest time

91 Boaz gets information that Ruth is a relative (the daughter-in-law if Naomi)
He then gives her special treatment and orders the workers to treat her with respect – not to be rough or make immodest remarks

92 Ruth returns home. Naomi tells Ruth of Boaz- “He is…your next of kin.”
Naomi realizes Boaz would: 1. make a splendid husband for Ruth 2. provide for her generously and 3. produce a longed-for son.

93 Chapter 3-4 Naomi the Match Maker
Naomi tells Ruth what she must do Ruth bathes, puts on perfume, dresses up, and finds the spot where Boaz will sleep for the night. When he sleeps, she uncovers a place at his feet and lies there.

94 When Boaz awakens and finds her, she asks him to cover her with his cloak
Boaz understands that Ruth is invoking the levirate marriage claim – and blesses her. Ruth’s request is not a sexual advance, but rather a proposal of marriage. Covering a woman with a garment was a traditional way of claiming her for marriage

95 There is still one who is a closer kinsman than Boaz
There is still one who is a closer kinsman than Boaz. He must relinquish his claim for Boaz to marry Ruth Naomi’s poverty is obliging her to sell her deceased husband’s land. The closest kinsman has first right and thus preserve the family patrimony The kinsman redeeming the land also takes Ruth, the widow of the last heir, as a wife in order to raise a new heir to the property

96 Chapter 4 The Marriage The man has no interest in the land or Ruth. (Or maybe just Ruth) Customarily, the man releasing claim to the land gives his sandal to the one who claims it. Boaz accepts the sandal in front of witnesses and receives congratulations

97 The Marriage of Ruth and Boaz
Ruth and Boaz marry Eventually, Ruth bears as son and names him Obed Naomi takes the child and “places him on her lap.” This signifies that she is taking him “as her own.” Remember Jacob and Joseph’s sons Ruth, Naomi, and Obed

98 Obed becomes the father of Jessie and Jessie becomes the father of King David.
The story of Ruth answers a long debated question among the Jewish people: “Is it right or good that a Gentile be welcomed by marriage into the community of Israel?” Ruth reveals God’s choice as fore bearer to the great King David

99 The story of Ruth says that the God of Israel is the God of all nations, the God to whom “there is neither Jew nor Greek…for you are all one in Christ Jesus” (Galatians 3:28)

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