2 Joshua and JudgesJoshua and Judges form a bridge (or transition) between the Pentateuch and the historical booksThey are called the “historical” b/c they show the theological formation (nature and will of God as revealed to humans) of the Hebrew nation over a long period of time.
3 Because they are in chronological order, we can say they are somewhat faithful to history
4 Two Sections It is divided into two major sections: 1. The miraculous conquest of the land by the tribes under Joshua’s leadership.2. Dividing the land among the tribes and settling territorial and boundary disputes
5 Joshua IntroductionGod demonstrates His fidelity in giving to Israel the land he promised them for an inheritance
6 God fulfills His promise to be their God and make them His people. God is the leader of this nation of independent tribes. There is no centralized Government authority
7 The occupation begins with the crossing of the Jordan and the conquest of Jericho
8 Not all 12 tribes wished to enter the Promised land-Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh found the land good, the water and forage for their sheep plentiful, and friendly neighborsThey would however, honor their commitment to fight with the Hebrew nation-at least for a while.
9 Joshua 1-2 Joshua is accepted as leader The new generation In 3 days they will move outThe Israelites unconditionally accept Joshua as the leaderThe new generationShows more deference (respect / admiration/submissiveness) to JoshuaFollow most of his commands
10 The Spies and Rahab Joshua sends two spies into Jericho Rahab’s house-(brothel) – a good place for informationThe King of Jericho finds outSends troops to Rahab’s houseShe lies, says “they left”They were on the roofShe had heard of God’s liberation of the Israelites from Egypt
11 Chapter 2 Rahab helps the spies escape Rahab is now a believer in God One of the purposes of Exodus was to increase the belief among non-IsraelitesShe and her family will be spared during the conquest (b/c of her belief)She marks her home with a red rope
12 Chapter 3-5 The Miracle of the Ark The waters of the Jordan roll back as the Ark, carried by 1 priest from each tribe, enter the JordanThis gives continuity >Moses then Joshua. The parting of the Red sea, crossing the JordanIt also indicates the upcoming battles will be won by the power of God, not men.
13 The Memorial StonesGod commands them to keep a stone from the riverbed to remember the miracle (this experience)In the future, when your children ask you, 'What do these stones mean?' 7 tell them that the flow of the Jordan was cut off before the ark of the covenant of the LORD. When it crossed the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. These stones are to be a memorial to the people of Israel forever."
14 HomeworkBring in an object from home that you will keep as a memorial of the time spent here at CBHS. Bring in something you would feel comfortable sharing with the class
15 The New GenerationThe manna ceases- they can now feed themselves from this land of milk and honeyJoshua has all circumcised. This obedience symbolizes a renewal of the covenantThis is done at Gilgal (meaning to roll)God has rolled back Israel’s reproach (reprimand)
16 A man shows up with a drawn sword He is neither for them or against themJoshua must take off his sandal-reminiscent of Moses and the burning bushGod will be fighting for IsraelBut the war isn’t about Israel, it is about God’s purposes (“neither” side)
17 Chapter 6-7 The Walls of Jericho “I will deliver Jericho into your hands”Soldiers and 7 priests walk around the city once a day for 6 daysOn the 7th day they walk around 7 times, then blow the trumpets and shoutThe walls collapse and Israel takes Jericho
18 Joshua 6:21-2421And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword… 24And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein: only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD.
19 Herem This was a practice of many primitive tribes. When a city was captured and placed under “herem” all was divided into 2 classifications:1. Sacred2. Profane
20 National Survival/Will of the gods Anything judged profane was to be destroyed. Anything considered sacred was taken over for religious purposes.Does this kind of brutality seem shocking to you?Remember, this is a time and place which did not share our outlook. It was a mater of national survival and success in war was identified with the will of the gods
21 The tearing down of an entire city would be an enormous task – as well as rebuilding a new one. It’s not likely the “herem” was ever really practiced (at least on a large scale)
22 The “herem” was seen more as an ideal that should be accomplished, not necessarily the actual destruction
23 The writer is emphasizing that Israel put all its trust in God alone during war and sought nothing for itself
24 Defeat at Ai Why were the Israelites defeated at Ai? Someone had broken the covenant-a soldier had taken what belonged to GodAchan had stolen gold/silver (should have been used for religious purposes)Achan is “cut off”. He and his family are buried with their belongingsNext time Israel is successful
25 Can you see how your actions effect others around you? Can you see how you cut yourself “off” from those you love when you lie, steal, cheat, etc. (when we are selfish)?
26 Chapter 9-12 Gibeonites deceive Joshua They are afraid of Israel They dress like poor people and make the Israelites believe they’re travelers from “outside” the Promised landWithout going over this with God (i.e. we would pray), Joshua makes an oath never to attack themEventually the truth comes out and Gibeon becomes servants of Israel
27 Hewers of wood and drawers of water These were the people living in the lowest social classes of the community
28 What is an OathIt is a solemn appeal to a deity-or some revered personIs an oath binding when the one giving it is deceived?How binding is it?
29 Miraculous Conquest Hail storms aid in killing many The sun stands still at Joshua’s request until Israel wins (The crowing rooster/raining before the game ends)Nothing is impossible for God. The Lord fought for IsraelIsrael has conquered the Promised land-the inheritance has taken place
30 Division of land to the 12 Tribes of Israel The Twelve TribesManassehAsherZebulunIssacharEphraimBenjaminDanGadJudahNaphtaliSimeonReuben
31 HomeworkMake a sketch of your 8th grade cafeteria and how the 8th grade class was grouped for lunch.Identify in a respectful way, what gifts each group (clique) brought to the school. Write them on the other side of the sheet.Identify and record the positive and negative characteristics of the cliques.Identify and record common bonds and events that unite the groups into a community.
32 How is your current freshman class here at CBHS grouped? Is it united?If not, what are some values/beliefs that could help unite it?-or strengthen the unity?What about the school as a whole?
33 Joshua 13-22 Roll the dice-The Holy Land is divided Joshua and the High Priest Eleazar divide the land using sacred diceJust how many tribes are there?There are actually 13. Joseph’s is spilt between his 2 sons Manasseh and Ephraim (remember, Jacob adopted them as his own)The tribe of Levi received no land-why?They were given the priestly functions. The priests needed to be spread out – 48 cities between the tribes and 6 cities of refuge.
34 Cities of refuge What were these cities for? For people who accidentally killed another-to protect them from the vengeance of the victim’s familyDo we have a moral obligation today to protect (offer sanctuary) to innocent people from countries who are trying to escape persecution/murder?
35 Chapter 23 Joshua’s Farewell Joshua emphasizes:The Lord has defeated their opponents therefore-Be strong / Follow the LawDon’t mingle with other nationsDon’t worship or swear oaths to false gods
36 Chapter 24 -Renewal of the Covenant/Joshua’s Death This assembly renewing the covenant made at Mt. Sinai is an important event in Israel’s history.Shechem thus becomes the earliest religious center for the Israelite tribesThe renewal links the past and present together (remember, this conquest occurs over a long period of time)- the groups not formally a part of the Exodus were formally initiated into the covenantal community
37 AnamnesisThis continual bringing up to the present (linking past to present) is how the Hebrews maintained their history.This linking of past and present is called ANAMNESISThe liturgical celebration of the Mass links the saving actions of Jesus with people in the present
38 What are the 2 major parts of the Mass? Word/EucharistHow does each part relate to the past?
39 Covenant Renewed Don’t ally with or marry “Pagans” Why the emphasis on this?The renewal assembles all of IsraelLists the continual support of GodShows God’s fidelity-every promise has been kept by the LordThey confirm they will solely worship God-“As for me and my household, we will serve the Lord”
40 Joshua’s Death After Joshua dies, the Israelites are left leaderless. The next leaders will be the Judges. They will be in charge of small areas or tribes.There will be no other leaders of all the people until the time of the kings
42 Folk Heroes Get into your groups Make a list of some folk heroes of our time - religious figures, singers, athletes, astronauts, scientists, political activists, etc.List the qualities and/or achievements that make them stand out
43 The Books PurposeTo show that the fortunes of Israel depended upon their obedience or disobedience to God’s LawWhenever they rebelled against Him, they were oppressed. When they repented, he raised up judges to deliver them
44 The Moral Pattern of Judges The Israelites are unfaithful to God and worship false godsGod punishes them through foreign oppressionThey repent and ask God to forgive themGod raises up a savior to rescue them- militarily through a judge
46 We Mirror IsraelOur tragedies, like those of Israel, are a result of forgetting our call to serve God and do what’s right.When Israel forgets to reveal the one God to all nations, it falls into selfishness, apprehensiveness, blindness, and ends up dominated by idol worshiping neighbors.Can you see the parallel to our lives?
47 What was the Purpose of the Judges? The Judges took care of legal matters but was more of a military leaderArose in time of great need. They would lead the tribes during the rest of their lifetimeThe position was not based on descendentsThe Judge was not in control of all the tribes at onceThere are 12 Judges – major and minor
48 Major Judges Minor Judges 1. Othniel2. Ehud3. Barak (w/Deborah)4. Gideon5. Jephthah6. Samson1. Shamgar2. Tola3. Jair4. Ibzan5. Elon6. Abdon
49 Judges 1-3 Othniel is the first Judge The people are worshiping false godsGod allows Cushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia to conquer themThey cry out- Othniel defeats the enemy
50 Ehud How quickly we forget Eglon (Moabite) conquers Israel Ehud is in charge of the tribute to MoabEhud is left handed-what makes this significant?The guards miss the knife when he’s friskedEhud stabs the king, escapes, and the Israelites lie in wait for the Moabites as they pursue Ehud
51 Shamgar After Ehud came Shamgar He strikes down six hundred Philistines with an ox goadHe too saves Israel
52 Chapter 4-5 Deborah & Barak Deborah is referred to as both judge and prophetGod reveals to her that Barak is to lead an army against Sisera (Jabin’s general)
53 Outraged at Sisera’s desertion, Jael hammers a tent spike through Sisera’s skull while he sleeps. How’s that for hospitality?These two women are held in esteem despite their gender roles
54 Chapter 5 Canticle of Deborah The canticle praises Jael. Jael is active and forcefulIn contrast with the Canaanite women who are passive and submissive, waiting and looking out the windows at their husbands / soldiers as they bring back spoils and womenAre women still seen in this way today?
55 Chapter 6 GideonThis account follows the same format-the Israelites worship false gods (Baal)The Midianites destroy the produce of the landGod raises up Gideon as a judgeGideon is reluctant. He’s hiding in the wine press-needs a sign
56 A Reluctant Warrior God sees something in him we don’t Gideon is eventually convinced to become judgeWhy is reluctance such a common theme in the Bible?
57 Destroy the alter to Baal The alter is on his property (his father’s)What does this tell us?Gideon destroys the temple to Baal (the storm god)The people call for Gideon’s deathHis father Joash intervenes. If Baal is a god, let him kill Gideon himselfFrom this Gideon is given the nickname Jerubbaal = “let Baal take action”
58 Gideon wants certainty Gideon asks for another signHe asks that his wool fleece remain wet while the morning ground remain dryThe next day the opposite happensHe gets his signs, and he goes to war
59 Chapter 7 Trimming the Army Gideon is rebuked by God-his army is too largeGod wants the credit to be divineGideon trims the army from 32,000 down to 300The river – those who drank from their hands were chosenThese were the soldiers who were reliable; alert, standing ready to resist attack. The others were careless, undependable
60 The Dream 7:13-14 The barley represents the agricultural Hebrews. The tent represents the nomadic MidianitesThe overthrow of the tent indicates the victory of the Hebrews over the Midianites
61 Defeat of Midian The army is divided into 3 companies All have horns and empty jars with torches inside themThey reach the edge of the camp, blow the horns, break the jarsIt works. The Midianites think the forces are much bigger than 300
62 Why Did God Pick Gideon?God is the liberator.The judges are God’s instrumentsGideon is offered kingship over the HebrewsHe refuses, since God is their king (ruler)
64 Chapter 9-11Abimelech is proclaimed king, but biblical writers do not recognize him as such.His savage behavior excludes him from most list of judges as wellA WOMAN drops a millstone on his head
65 Jephthah Ammonites are next to oppress Israel They cry out Jephthah is appointed judgeHe is the son of a prostitute.Expelled from his Gileadite familyHe foolishly vows, that if victorious, he will sacrifice whoever first comes to meet him on his return
66 On his triumphant return, Jephthah is greeted by his only child, his beloved daughter.
67 Jephthah’s daughter asks for two months of mourning To bear children was very important. She is mourning the fact that she will die childlessIsraelite maidens mourn each year for four days in her memory
68 These type vows indicate the primitive notion of God Is God O.K. with this?Oaths are very, very important but murder is really, really badJephthah’s promise turns victory into tragedyThe lesson reminds the reader that human sacrifice is FORBIDDENGod was already with him – there was no need to make the oath
69 Chapter 12 Ibzan judges Israel 7 years Elon judges10 years Abdon judges8 years
70 Chapter 13 Samson The Philistines have dominated Israel for 40 yrs. Samson’s mother was barren. An angel tells her she will conceiveThe son she bears will be a Nazarite (consecrated to God-no strong drink/never cut his hair or beard)He was strong-but not the brightest of minds
71 Chapter 14-15 Samson does many things he shouldn’t be doing He wants to marry a Philistine (non-Israelite)He gives a riddle for a betHis wife coaxes the answer from him and gives it to her kinsmenShe is given away to his best manHe kills 1,000 Philistines with the jawbone of an ass
72 The Honey in the Carcass This incident suggests that goodness can be found in unlikely places – and in unlikely people
73 Chapter 16 Delilah Love must be blind Was it love, arrogance, or stupidity that compels Samson to tell Delilah his secret?While he sleeps, she cuts his hair and binds himThey gouge out his eyes and make him grind flour
74 Samson's hair grows back He’s brought to the Temple of Dagon (god of grain)They gloat over him and marvel-he’s huge, but blindHe is chained between two pillars holding up the roofHe prays for one last bit of strengthHe collapses the building killing himself and the Philistines
75 The Lesson of Samson God can use peoples’ selfish impulses to do good The Philistines and Israelites do terrible things to each other“I only did to them what they did to me”With this attitude, you all end up dead
76 Chapter 17-21 17:6 “In those days everyone did what they thought best” TheftCorruptionLustProstitutionHomosexuality
77 19 Outrage at GibeahA Levite and a concubine (like a wife, but has less status and rights)Travel into Benjamin territory and stay the night with a man and woman of the townDuring the night the people demand the Levite to “abuse him.” (have sex)
78 The man of the house offers his daughter He sends out the Levite’s concubine who is raped. She ends up dead on the doorstepThe Levite cuts her into 12 pieces and sends them to the tribesThe tribes rise up in civil revolt against Benjamin and almost wipe them outThey are allowed to take non-Israelites to replenish the tribe
79 Moral RelativismMorality is not subjective – “What I think is right is right.”It is inconsistent / contradictoryWhen I take something it’s O.K. (finders keepers, losers weepers)When something is taken from me, it not fair (unjust)Morality must be consistentIf something is false, it’s not true“A” cannot be “A” and not “A” at the same timeThe key is what Jesus taught:Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
80 They need a kingThe last line of the book of Judges summarizes the book perfectly: In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.
81 They need a king so they no longer do just “what is right in their own eyes.” They need guidance and punishment when necessary
83 Ruth IntroductionThese events concentrate on the story of one family and take place during the time period of judgesThis is a book of Filial pietyAnd there is a divine reward for such piety (she’s the great grandmother of David)Ruth’s spirit of self sacrifice and moral integrity is a foreshadowing of the messianic salvation of Jesus
84 This book shows us how God could create a blessed ending out of a difficult situation. Israel's noble King David had a Gentile as his great-grandmotherIn Ruth’s concern for the survival of her mother-in-law, her strength of character exceeds that of some of the judges
85 Elemilech (means “God is my King”) and Naomi take their 2 sons to Moab to escape the famine Elimelech dies and the 2 sons marry Moabite women (Orpah /Ruth)Both sons die leaving Naomi without children or grand- children (levirate law doesn’t apply)Chapter 1
86 Naomi and her daughter-in-laws journey back to (Judah) Bethlehem For the sake of prosperity, Orpah returns to her people. Ruth stays with Naomi.Naomi’s love for these women is evident. She’s resigning herself to seeing the end of her husbands family line by encouraging them to go to their land and find new husbands
87 Ruth 1:16“Wherever you go I will go, wherever you lodge, I will lodge, your people shall be my people, and your God my God…”This oath is a confirmation of Ruth’s fidelity and piety. She will abandon her country and her pagan worship
88 DefinitionsGlean- gathering grain left by those who cut down the stalks of the field.Once cut, the grain must be loosened from the stalks. It is spread on the Threshing floor and are beaten, walked on, or loosened with a studded board pulled by an animal
89 Winnowing - tossing into the air with winnowing shovel on a windy day Husk - the thin outer coating of the grainChaff - the paper-thin husk carried away by the breeze. The heavy grain drops to the ground.Ephah - A little more than a bushel
90 Chapter 2 Ruth gleans from a field belonging to Boaz The poor, widowed, orphan, stranger, was allowed to glean from the excess at harvest time
91 Boaz gets information that Ruth is a relative (the daughter-in-law if Naomi) He then gives her special treatment and orders the workers to treat her with respect – not to be rough or make immodest remarks
92 Ruth returns home. Naomi tells Ruth of Boaz- “He is…your next of kin.” Naomi realizes Boaz would: 1. make a splendid husband for Ruth 2. provide for her generously and 3. produce a longed-for son.
93 Chapter 3-4 Naomi the Match Maker Naomi tells Ruth what she must doRuth bathes, puts on perfume, dresses up, and finds the spot where Boaz will sleep for the night.When he sleeps, she uncovers a place at his feet and lies there.
94 When Boaz awakens and finds her, she asks him to cover her with his cloak Boaz understands that Ruth is invoking the levirate marriage claim – and blesses her.Ruth’s request is not a sexual advance, but rather a proposal of marriage.Covering a woman with a garment was a traditional way of claiming her for marriage
95 There is still one who is a closer kinsman than Boaz There is still one who is a closer kinsman than Boaz. He must relinquish his claim for Boaz to marry RuthNaomi’s poverty is obliging her to sell her deceased husband’s land. The closest kinsman has first right and thus preserve the family patrimonyThe kinsman redeeming the land also takes Ruth, the widow of the last heir, as a wife in order to raise a new heir to the property
96 Chapter 4 The MarriageThe man has no interest in the land or Ruth. (Or maybe just Ruth)Customarily, the man releasing claim to the land gives his sandal to the one who claims it.Boaz accepts the sandal in front of witnesses and receives congratulations
97 The Marriage of Ruth and Boaz Ruth and Boaz marryEventually, Ruth bears as son and names him ObedNaomi takes the child and “places him on her lap.”This signifies that she is taking him “as her own.”Remember Jacob and Joseph’s sonsRuth, Naomi, and Obed
98 Obed becomes the father of Jessie and Jessie becomes the father of King David. The story of Ruth answers a long debated question among the Jewish people: “Is it right or good that a Gentile be welcomed by marriage into the community of Israel?”Ruth reveals God’s choice as fore bearer to the great King David
99 The story of Ruth says that the God of Israel is the God of all nations, the God to whom “there is neither Jew nor Greek…for you are all one in Christ Jesus” (Galatians 3:28)