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Malcolm Knowles and Adult Learning for Preceptors Judy Stilwell RN,MSN EDUC-8101-1.

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Presentation on theme: "Malcolm Knowles and Adult Learning for Preceptors Judy Stilwell RN,MSN EDUC-8101-1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Malcolm Knowles and Adult Learning for Preceptors Judy Stilwell RN,MSN EDUC

2 Objectives At the end of the presentation the participant will be able to: Discuss adult learning principles Compare and contrast one other learning theory Apply principles to the preceptor role

3 Pedagogy versus Andragogy Pedagogy is the science of educating children it embodies teacher-focused education Andragogy is the science of educating adults it refers to learner focused education, the role of the teacher is facilitator or coach

4 Malcolm Knowles- father of adult learning Greatest gift a trainer could give to his or her students is the love of learning “Your primary goal is not to help people learn, your goal is to help people fall in love with learning”( Bell,2004) Learning is temporary. Learning to learn is permanent Learning should be a joyful event

5 Knowles’ Principles Adults move from dependent personality toward self-directing human beings Adults have a reservoir of experience, a rich resource for learning Readiness to learn is related to developmental tasks and social roles Adults want their experience to have immediate application instead of future application

6 Life experiences Adults have life experience they can relate to learning New learning will be based on previous experience Past experience can be handicap May be difficult to change old habits Show then old behavior may not be appropriate

7 Fear of Failure May have experienced criticism, failure and discouragement Damaged self-confidence and low sense of worth In new learning environment, may feel anxious, fear of failure and dread rejection by the group

8 Expectations about Learning Adults enter education with more specific and immediate intention to apply newly acquired knowledge Learning must have immediate application Learning rate begins to decline at age 20,adults retain power to learn but lose speed at which learning is accomplished

9 Creating a friendly environment Environment should be one of mutual trust and respect Offer help when employee seems lost Include new staff member in lunch breaks earn trust by providing preceptee with all the information they need If new staff feel unwelcome they will leave Nurses have a reputation for being judgmental

10 Andragogical approach to stress encourages Empathetic interventions Self-directedness Independence Person feels more relaxed and feels free to to explore information and incorporate theory into practice.

11 Andralogical approach to critical thinking encourages Person to formulate and explore feelings related to concepts Great critical thinkers are inquisitive, honest in facing biases, willing to reconsider Focused on inquiry Role of preceptor-to facilitate this type of environment, person can think, feel, problem solve and reflect

12 Brief look at other theories Reinforcement ( Skinner) people learn based on rewards for correct behavior (positive) or punishment for inappropriate behavior(negative) Desired results receives reinforcement or negative reinforcement is removed

13 Kolb’s experiential learning model Concrete and experience ( sensory/feeling) Reflection and observation (reviewing/watching) Abstraction and generalization ( thinking/concluding) Test hypothesis and new situations ( doing / planning Learning is a holistic process of adaptation to the world

14 Comparison and Contrast of theories Knowles Theory Pros-distinguishes adult learning from other areas of education Promotes a classroom of adultness Promotes a spirit of mutuality between teachers and students Kolb’s Theory Pros-Learning takes place through involvement and reflection Students bring their own life experience to learning situation Hands-on aspect increases motivation and material retention

15 Comparison and contrast continued Knowles’ theory Cons-certain life experiences can function as a barrier to learning Adults may be mandated to learn and required to participate-lowers motivation Immediate application of learning can lead to a narrow view of learning Kolb’s theory Cons-Time and resource intensive for student and instructor Learners may bring different cultural experiences or perspectives to the learning experience Theory does not aid in understanding or explaining change and experiences

16 Guidelines for Working with Adults Treat them with dignity and respect Recognize the uniqueness of individuals Work to create a supportive social climate Involve adults in decision –making Interact in a parallel fashion rather than super- subordinate way Adjust goals where appropriate to meet learner’s needs

17 Conclusion What have we learned today? Fill out evaluations Thank you for you participation

18 References Brandon,A.(2010).Constructivism theory analysis and application to curricula.Nursing Education Perspectives.Retrieved June17,2010 from htmlhttp://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G html Kelly,M.(2006). Teach an old dog new tricks:Training techniques for the adult learner.Professional Safety.http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P html

19 References Rothwell,W.(2008). Adult learning basics.Alexandria,VA: ASTD Press. Turesky,T.(2005). David Kolb’s experiential learning model and career development.Career Planning and Adult Development Journal.Retreievd June 17,2010 from


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