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Psychological Disorders. Defining Psychological Disorders  a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be:  maladaptive--harmful  unjustifiable--sometimes.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders. Defining Psychological Disorders  a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be:  maladaptive--harmful  unjustifiable--sometimes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological Disorders

2 Defining Psychological Disorders  a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be:  maladaptive--harmful  unjustifiable--sometimes there’s a good reason  Must include:  Personal discomfort (inner distress)  Change in life Functioning (success in meeting expectations for performance in work or school and social relationships)

3 Historical Views Supernatural view –Mysterious actions indicated supernatural powers –Madness was a sign of possession –Punishment: Burning at the stake Naturalistic View –Hippocrates –Madness was a sickness- treat with care

4 Theories of Nature, Cause, and Treatment Biological Model –Physiological malfunctions Psychoanalytic Model –Result of unconscious internal conflict Cognitive-Behavioral –Result of learning (learned inferiority) Diathesis-stress (integration) –Biological predisposition combined with stressful situation Systems approach (integration) –Biological, psychological, and social combination (biopsychosocial model)

5 Classification - DSM-IV DSM-IV  American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)  a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders  presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR (text revision)

6 Prevalence and Uses 15% experience mental disorder –Top three: Anxiety, phobias, mood 6% substance abuse Incidence: new cases in a given time Prevalence: frequency of a case “Insanity”- a legal term used in court to avoid holding the ill accountable for unjust actions

7 Mood Disorders  Definition: characterized by emotional extremes Difference between sadness and clinical depression? –Normal = response to real-world situation, lasts for a short period, typical reaction

8 Mood Disorders  Major Depressive Disorder  a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

9 Mood Disorders MDD Symptoms –Depressed mood Feeling sad or empty for most of the day, nearly every day –Loss of interest in pleasure –Significant weight loss or gain –Sleep disturbances –Disturbances in motor activity –Fatigue –Worthlessness or self guilt –Trouble concentration –Recurrent thoughts of death

10 Mood Disorders Dysthymia –Less intense sadness that persists for 2 years or more

11 Mood Disorders Bipolar Disorder –Disorder in which an individual alternates between feelings of MANIA (EUPHORIA) & DEPRESSION –Mania- active, talkative, high self- esteem, potentially aggressive Ben Stiller, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Brittney Spears, DMX, Charlie Sheen –Manic-Depressive Disorder (Kelsey and Chase)Manic-Depressive DisorderKelseyChase

12 Mood Disorders - Bipolar PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional switches Depressed stateManic stateDepressed state

13 Causes of Mood Disorders Biological Factors –Identical Twin more likely to be depressed than Fraternal –Neurotransmitters –Medications can treat (SSRIs) Psychological Factors –Cognitive Distortions- “Twisting” a situation and misinterpreting it severly

14 Depression & Women

15 Depression Rates

16 Depression & Suicide

17 Anxiety Disorders Defined as: distressing, persistent anxiety (don’t know cause or is inappropriate) or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

18 Anxiety Disorders  Generalized Anxiety Disorder  Prolonged vague but intense fears- person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal (unable to relax, constantly restless, rapid heart, trouble sleeping)  “Free floating” anxiety

19 Anxiety Disorder  Panic Disorder  marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation  No reasonable cause  Dread of having another panic attack is stressful (agoraphobia?)

20 Anxiety Disorders  Specific Phobia Specific Phobia  persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation –Acerophobia - Fear of itching –Acrophobia - Fear of heights –Aerophobia - Fear of flying –Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces (or being separated from sources of security) –Atelophobia - Fear of imperfection –Autophobia - Fear of being alone –Lygophobia - Fear of darkness –Arachniphobia – Fear of spiders –Arachibutyrophobia – Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth –Social Phobia- Fear of public situations (public speaking)

21 Anxiety Disorders  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)  May experience anxiety if behavior is stopped  Hoarding Hoarding

22 Anxiety Disorders Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) –Disorder in which victims of traumatic events experience the original event in the forms of dreams or flashbacks long after the event –Acute stress- immediately after –A Soldier's Struggle with PTSDA Soldier's Struggle with PTSD

23 Psychosomatic and Somatoform Disorders Psychosomatic- “mind” and “body” –Real illnesses that have a psychological cause –Ex: Tension headaches, High Blood Pressure exacerbated by stress –Joe Paterno? Somatoform- Believe they are physically ill –Problem is somatic (physical) in appearance with no evidence of illness

24 Somatoform Somatization disorder- Vague, recurring physical symptoms with no cause (back pain, dizziness, stomach pains, etc.) Conversion Disorder -Conversion of emotional difficulties into the loss of a specific physiological function If stuck with a pin, a limb will have no feeling glove anesthesia- lack of feeling from the hand down “Hysterical Blindness” Hypocondriasis - A person who is in good health becomes preoccupied with imaginary ailments (a cough becomes a serious disease BDD- Body Dysmorphic Disorder- imagined ugliness

25 Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorder - a disorder in which a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consciousness Part of the person is dissociated from the rest (memory, identity, etc.) i.e. Dissociative Amnesia- memory of war victims is incomplete (selectively forgotten)

26 Dissociative Fugue A person suddenly and unexpectedly travels away from home or work and is unable to recall the past- rare This person will assume an entirely new identity

27 DID- Dissociative Identity Disorder Formerly Multiple Personality A person exhibits two or more personality states, each with its own patterns of thinking and behaving A.k.a. Multiple Personality a2PxSgZ28http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5 a2PxSgZ28

28 Case Study “In general demeanor, Maud was quite different from Sara. She walked with a swinging, bouncing gait contrasted to Sara’s sedate one. While Sara was depressed, Maud was ebullient and happy… Insofar as she could Maud dressed different from Sara… Sara used no make-up. Maud used a lot of rough and lipstick…” Sara was mature (19.2 mental age, IQ 128), while Maud was childish (6.6, IQ of 43)

29 Depersonalization Person suddenly feels changed or different in a strange way Is common during adolescence, but when this becomes long-term or chronic it is classified as a dissociative disorder

30 Sexual Disorders Sexual Dysfunction- loss or impairment of physical responses Sexual Desire Disorder- lack of interest Paraphilias- Unconventional sex objects or situations to obtain sex arousal (fantasies) –Fetishism- repeated use of nonhuman object to achieve arousal –Exhibitionism, Pedophilia, Frotteurism, Sexual Sadism, Masochism, Transvestic Fetishism

31 Gender Identity Disorders Desire to become a member of the other biological sex Many times this is resolved by adulthood If not, sexual reassignment surgery is an option Cause: Biological? Two sexes is not enough to encompass human sexuality?

32 Schizophrenia  Schizophrenia  literal translation “split mind”  a group of severe disorders characterized by:  disorganized and delusional thinking  disturbed perceptions  inappropriate emotions and actions

33 Schizophrenia  Psychosis: A loss of touch from reality  Delusions  false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders  Hallucinations  sensory experiences without sensory stimulation

34 Subtypes of Schizophrenia Giggling, Grimacing, Active but aimless - Then overactive Being chased by Russian spies, evil clowns, etc.- “Normal”

35 Genetics & Schizophrenia

36 Fluid-filled Brain - Schizophrenia

37 Dopamine & Diathesis- Stress Hypothesis Dopamine Hypothesis -An excess of dopamine at selected synapses is related to a diagnosis of schizophrenia Diathesis-Stress Hypothesis - Individual may have inherited a predisposition toward schizophrenia

38 Personality Disorder  Personality Disorders  disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning  usually without anxiety, depression, or delusions

39 Types of Personality Disorder Antisocial- lie, cheat, steal, kill with no regret Dependent- Unable to make decisions on their own Histrionic - Excessive emotions; Seeks attention Paranoid – Suspicious and mistrustful, hypersensitive to threats Schizotypal, or Schizoid - Intense discomfort in close relationships, lack desire to form social relationships Borderline- Instability in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships; impulsive Narcissistic –grandiose sense of self-importance and preoccupation with fantasies of success Avoidant- timid, anxious, and fearful of rejection, but wants close relationships

40 Personality Disorder  Antisocial Personality Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder  disorder in which the person (usually man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members  may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

41 Childhood Disorders ADHD (Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity disorder)- lack ability to focus in a sustained way Biological factors in central nervous system Treatment- psychostimulants to “slow down” hyperactive children

42 Autistic Disorder 1/500 Children 4x in boys Fail to form normal attachments, distant and withdrawn, delayed speech or develop echolalia (repetition of words said to them) Strange motor behavior Precise cause unknown “Autism: The Musical”


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