Presentation on theme: "Chapter One: The Sentence Day 1: Sentences VS Fragments 8 th Grade Language Arts."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter One: The Sentence Day 1: Sentences VS Fragments 8 th Grade Language Arts
Proper Notetaking… Before we begin actually taking notes… Here are a few tips and requirements of notetaking: – Always start with a title (the topic) and the date so your notes are easy to find. – Always write legibly. – Always write down the definitions and at least a few of the examples. This will help you study!
Notetaking… Your notebooks will be graded every test day and worth 50 more points. Here’s the breakdown: 5 points for title, 5 points for date 15 points for definitions 15 points for examples. 5 points for legibility 5 points for turning in on time = 50 points
Sentences VS Fragments What is a sentence? – contains a subject and a verb – expresses a complete thought. – begins with a capital letter and ends with punctuation. Ex. A butterfly with bright blue wings landed on the flower. Ex. Although it was raining, they went out to wait for the bus.
Sentences VS Fragments What is a fragment? – contains EITHER a subject OR a verb (not both!) – does NOT express a complete thought. Ex. Went out for a jog. Ex. Sheila, the old milking cow.
Sentences VS Fragments How can we compare and contrast sentences and fragments? How are they similar and how are they different? Give examples of sentences. Give examples of fragments.
In Class Practice In your notes, decide if the following groups of words are sentences or fragments. If it is a sentence, capitalize the first letter and add the correct punctuation. If it is a fragment, correct it. You should copy the whole sentence/fragment in your notes. 1.after he caught the baseball with both hands 2.doing the multiplication tables 3.a long, narrow passage with a hidden trapdoor at each end 4.after waiting for six hours 5.the gymnasium is open 6.last night there were about six television commercials every half hour 7.instead of calling the doctor this morning about her sore throat 8.are you careful about turning off unnecessary lights 9.beneath the tall ceiling of the church 10.in the back of the storeroom stands a stack of boxes
Chapter One: The Sentence Day 2: Types of Sentences 8 th Grade Language Arts
Types of Sentences9/1/11 Sentences are classified into four categories, depending on the purpose. – A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. Ex. Mark wondered why the sky looks blue. Ex. Miriam Colon founded the Puerto Rican Traveling Theater. Ex. Kevin threw the baseball back to the catcher in time to make the play.
Types of Sentences9/1/11 – An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end in a period, however, a strong command ends in an exclamation point. Ex. John, please close the door. Ex. Do your homework each night. Ex. Stop her! – The subject of an imperative sentences is always you. It’s called the “understood subject”. (Who is doing the action?)
Types of Sentences9/1/11 – An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends in a question mark. Ex. What do you know about glaciers? Ex. Was the game exciting? Ex. How are diamonds formed?
Types of Sentences9/1/11 – An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point. Ex. What a sight the sunset is! Ex. How thoughtful Tim was to rake the leaves! Ex. Sarah won the free tickets!
In Class Practice Provide the type of sentence and the punctuation. 1.Do you know what the word Hopi means 2.It means “good, peaceful,” I believe 3.The Hopi live primarily in northeastern Arizona 4.Have you been to Arizona 5.Wow, the Grand Canyon is awesome 6.Please go see it 7.Meteor Canyon is interesting, too 8.Western movies have been filmed near Sedona INT (?) DEC (.) IMP (.) DEC (.) INT (?) EXC (!) EXC (!) or DEC (.) DEC (.)
Homework! For homework, complete the two worksheets: – Sentences and Sentences Fragments (and subjects and predicates at the bottom) – Classifying Sentences [at the bottom, rewrite each sentence to perform the task asked in brackets] Ex. 1. George Catlin began painting professionally in the 1820s. [Ask a question.] would become… When did George Catlin begin painting professionally? Any questions?!
Friday- September 7, 2012 Take out your homework from last night.
Chapter One: The Sentence Day 3: Complete & Simple Subjects & Predicates 8 th Grade Language Arts Label your notes for today: CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12
Every sentence consists of two parts: a subject and a predicate. Remember, a sentence has a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 A subject is the ‘whom’ or ‘what’ the sentence is about. To find the subject, ask yourself ‘who’ or ‘what’ is doing the action or about ‘whom’ or ‘what’ something is being said. The simple subject is part of the complete subject.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 The simple subject is the one word that tells you who or what the sentence is about. – The school bus my aunt drives is the one I ride to school. The complete subject is that one word plus the words that describe it. – The school bus my aunt drives is the one I ride to school.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 Find the simple subject in each sentence. Ex. The kitten with white paws is called Boots. Ex. Grandma found a beautiful antique lamp at the garage sale. Ex. Two small boys were laughing and running down the street. Ex. Her sealed envelope rested on the edge of the desk. Ex. The largest salamander in the United States is the Pacific giant salamander.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 Find the complete subject in each sentence. Ex. The dangerous trip over the mountains took four days. Ex. Someone in this room is about to get a big surprise! Ex. The hungry tiger was pacing back and forth in the cage. Ex. Stamp collecting is my father’s favorite hobby.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 A predicate, or verb, is the word or words that tell something about the subject. The predicate (verb) is the action or what’s happening in the sentence. The simple predicate (verb) is part of the complete predicate. The predicate begins with the verb.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group that tells the action or what’s happening in the sentence. – A simple predicate could be a one-word verb like “walked” or a verb phrase like “have rehearsed”. – In this class, we will use the word verb for the simple predicate. The words not and never are adverbs and are not part of the verb or verb phrase. – Ex. She didn’t believe me. not tells –to what extent
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 The simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells about the subject. – The school bus my aunt drives is the one I ride to school. The complete predicate is the verb and the other words that describe it. – The school bus my aunt drives is the one I ride to school.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 Find the simple predicate in each sentence. Ex. The kitten with white paws is called Boots. Ex. Grandma found a beautiful antique lamp at the garage sale. Ex. Two small boys were laughing and running down the street. Ex. Her sealed envelope rested on the edge of the desk. Ex. The largest salamander in the United States is the Pacific giant salamander.
CH 1: Subjects and Predicates9/7/12 Find the complete predicate in each sentence. Ex. The dangerous trip over the mountains took four days. Ex. Someone in this room is about to get a big surprise! Ex. The hungry tiger was pacing back and forth in the cage. Ex. Stamp collecting is my father’s favorite hobby.
Homework! For homework tonight, complete the Simple and Complete Subjects and Predicates Worksheet (Ex B #1-10, Ex C #1-10, and #1-10 on the back); due MONDAY Ch 1 test on Thursday, September 13 Monday: Compound Subjects & Predicates Any questions?!
Chapter One: The Sentence Day 4: Compound Subjects & Verbs 8 th Grade Language Arts Take out your homework from Friday!
CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12 Remember! A subject is the who or what the sentence is about. Remember! The verb is the action or what’s happening in the sentence. It’s telling us about the subject.
Compound Subject - a compound subject consists of two or more connected subjects that have the same verb. The subjects are joined by a conjunction such as and, or, or but. – Two or more people or things doing one action. Keisha and Todd worked on the jigsaw puzzle. Either Carmen or Ernesto will record the ceremony tomorrow. The boys and their pets will be showcased in the parade. CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Try it by yourself! In your notes, write down (only) the compound subjects. 1. Companies and corporations sell shares to stockholders. 2. Profits and losses by a company affect its stock's value. 3. Good times and good management increase a stock's value. 4. Millionaires and ordinary people trade stocks worth millions of dollars. 5. New York and Tokyo are sites of stock exchanges. CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Compound Verb- A compound verb is made up of two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and have the same subject. – One person or thing doing 2 or more actions The dog barked and growled at the stranger. You can leave now or wait for the others. Some plants sprout, bloom, and wither quickly. CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Try it by yourself! In your notes, write down (only) the compound verbs. 1. Stocks usually increase or decrease in value over time. 2. Bad management hurts and sometimes destroys a company. 3. Today, people use the Internet and make trades on computers. 4. Investors still want and need the help of stockbrokers now. 5. On any given day, the price of a stock rises or falls. CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Sometimes, both the subject and the verb may be compound. In such a sentence, each subject goes with each verb. *both people are doing both actions. The guide and the hikers sat and waited for the storm to pass. The boys and the girls loaded the buses and headed to the game. Either you and your friends can be quiet or leave. CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Try it by yourself! In your notes, make this table to find the subjects and verbs on the next slide. #Compound SubjectsCompound Verbs CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Try it by yourself! In your notes, make a table to find the subjects & verbs. 1. Cheryl and Mark went to Florida and visited their relatives. 2. Gary and John practice the piano and played in the concert. 3. The dog and cat ran out of the house and chased the mailman. 4. The football team and cheerleaders prepared for the game and tried their best. 5. Cell phones and laptops are modern and have become very popular. CH 1: Compound Subjects & Verbs9/10/12
Homework! For homework tonight, complete the top and bottom exercises of the worksheet: #1-10 at the top and #1-10 at the bottom. Due tomorrow! Ch 1 test on Thursday! (Notebook check, too!) Tomorrow: Chapter 1 Review Spelling this week! Any questions?!