Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations Review. Classical Civilizations Time frame? 500 bce-500ce Why is this period called “classcial”? Answer: the term highlights the."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Civilizations Time frame? 500 bce-500ce Why is this period called “classcial”? Answer: the term highlights the enduring traditions that have persisted until the 21 st century: Religion: Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, Confucianism (and a little later Islam) as well as Greco-Roman philosophical and political influences. Overarching continuities: type of government (monarchy/dynasty), patriarchy, sharp social divisions endured, as well as slavery Overarching changes: population growth across the world (pg. 89), rise and fall of large empires, distinctive philosophical-religious traditions developed, modest technological innovations (mostly in China), far more elaborate networks of communication and trade
Persia : begins earlier than traditional “classical civ”, Cyrus the Great 600 bce. Massive 35 million people, large landmass of diverse languages, cultures. Extensive administrative over 23 provinces (governors-administrators tax collectors, record keepers, translators) standard coins, roads, canals) VERY wealthy Absolute monarchy Greece : also begins earlier (750 bce) lasts about 400 years before becoming enveloped into other empires. (see ? at bottom) Small pop=2 to 3 million Not a Persian style empire, Greeks had independent city- states tied together only by language and religion. They expanded by creating colonies (so not all one connected empire as in Persia) Democracy How does this change under Alexander the Great?
Rome & China Similarities: flourish at same time (200bce-200ce), similar area and population (1.5 million square miles/50-60 million people), they have very little knowledge of each other. Rome: begins as a city-state with a monarchy 700bce. By 509, they threw off their king and established a republic, led by 2 consuls and advised by a Senate of patricians (wealthy class). Over time, a written code of laws, a public assembly and an office of Tribune which represented the plebeians (lower class). It was with this law code that the Romans launched their empire building (takes 500 years). By early 2 nd century CE they reached their maximum extent. This expansion depended on their army. Resources (such as metals and food supplies) and wealth fed the Roman empire as they expanded. **This wealth created a rich class which depended on slavery. Riches also empowered military leaders (Caesar, etc.) who recruited their own troops…leading to civil war. Power now rested solely with the emperor, no republic.
China: during the classical age they are not creating something new but restoring. Their civilization went back much further to 2200 bce under Xia and Shang dynasties. By 500 disunity and civil war, “warring states period”. Qin succeeded under Shihuangdi in unifying China. Like Rome, China’s empire building is dependent on a strong army. However, China’s empire was built much more quickly. The Han dynasty that followed Shihuangdi from 206 bce-220ce kept the centralizing features. It was the Han who consolidated China’s imperial state. The foundation for a unified state was set and it endures to the present day! A good and moral government became understood in Confucian ideology. Ideas such as the Mandate of Heaven helped unify the state even more. (government & philosophy tied together) Romans also began to view their emperor as a god.
Rome & China continued Both empires absorbed a new religious tradition: Christianity in Rome and Buddhism in China. Christianity in the Roman empire spread slowly and mostly amongst the poorer classes. Communication networks of the Roman empire aided this cultural diffusion. By 4 th century CE, Roman emperors began to support Christianity in an attempt to unify people behind the government. This helped it spread even faster. Buddhism in China: comes from India. Doesn’t really become popular until after the Han collapses. People probably turned to it due to the chaos and confusion of the collapsed dynasty. Under the Sui dynasty (581-604 ce) Buddhism receives state support.
Rome & China continued Citizenship: The people conquered by the Chinese in effect became Chinese. By 212 CE, almost all free people of the Roman empire were given citizenship. So, Roman empire tied together through legal status (issues related to land, family, commerce ; Chinese, on the other hand, were held together through a unified culture, language and a government based on merit/civil service. Culture: As the Roman empire expanded, they did bring their culture with them (Latin language, city life, public buildings, religious rituals). However, they also adopted foreign cultures too, especially Greek. (Today we refer to Greco-Roman culture). Whereas the Chinese experienced little competition from foreign cultures. So, the conquered people of the Roman empire could maintain their cultural traditions far more so than in China (especially due to their unified language).
Rome & China continued Both of these civilizations collapsed! Han in 220 CE and Rome in 476 CE (western half only). Common features: too big, too overextended (meaning they were difficult to govern and maintain), and too expensive. The growth of (and competition between) large landowning families who didn’t pay taxes and impoverished tenant farmers also contributed to the weakening of the central government; i.e. they have too much power. Rivalry affects government as power struggles ensue. Disease also a factor: 25% decrease in Roman population over 200 years= less production, less $ for gov., fewer soldiers. Nomadic tribes: as the Han dynasty weakened 100-200 CE, the Xiongnu breached the frontier defenses, set up barbarian states. Germanic tribes (who were fleeing the Huns) entered the Roman empire 300 CE, estb their own kingdoms. Displaced the Roman emperor by 476 CE. (new mixed culture=Latin & Germanic)
Collapse continued: in both China and Rome, this collapse means the decline of urban life, less cultivated land, diminished trade and insecurity. China reassembled itself (after 300 years of disunion and political chaos). A single emperor ruled, and a bureaucracy influenced by Confucian ideas returned. (Sui, Tang and Song) This equals one of the longest political traditions of any civilization in world history. In Western Europe, no large-scale centralized imperial authority has ever been successfully reestablished. Small territories run by kings, lords and nobles took its place. (Feudalism) These kings were frequently at odds with the Catholic Church. Whereas in China, Confucianism was largely secular, focusing on political matters. Economically, China was more productive at this time, which gave the gov a lot of resources and stability.
Chapter 5 Review How did Confucian philosophy affect the development of the Civil Service? And, how did one become an official? How did landownership change by the 1 st century BCE? Why are they called scholar-gentry? How were peasants treated/viewed? What about merchants? India What is the origin of the caste system? A= debated today; historians used to say it was imposed by Aryans based on race. Now, they think of it as a result of the diverse culture of South Asian peninsula.
The Caste System Has there been any flux or change within the caste system? A= Yes, Brahmins/Ksatriya switch, encompasses other people as empire expands, Sudra ceases to be lowest varna to the untouchables.
How was India’s social hierarchy similar to and different than China’s? A similar= birth largely determines social status and there was little social mobility (hard to move up) different = India’s gives priority to religious status. Political officials at the top for China. China had fewer but broader categories. And, less opportunity for social mobility in India. What makes the Indian social hierarchy unique? A So many levels to the hierarchy (incl. jatis) and also b/c of the ideas used to explain or justify the hierarchy such as ritual purity and pollution as applied to caste groups (and Hindu ideas of Karma/Dharma). How did the Caste system shape India classical civilization? A Jati were locally based (occupations/unions) so people’s loyalties were tied locally and not directed toward a large unified state. So, this helps explain why India rarely developed a unified state. Caste and Hinduism were substitutes for a large state. Helps with assimilation of invading people and exploitation of the poor.
Slavery What are some of the suggested ideas on the origin of slavery? A= tamed animals, war, patriarchy and private property What is meant by the term “social death”? A= slaves usually lacked any rights or personal independence Differences in the practice? A= gr/rm slaves may buy freedom or may be granted it, some slaves born into it others not, some performed high status jobs Slavery in China? A= not many 1%, usually convicted criminals and their families, parents selling their children into slavery Slavery in India? A= also pows, criminals, debtors…however, religious laws offered some protections (provide for them, not abandon them, earn $, own property, raped slaves set free and paid compensation). India had the untouchables and sudra for most work.
Slavery in Roman empire? A=a Roman empire was a slave society (like the U.S. 1600-1860s) : like other classical civ slaves were often pows, however in much higher numbers in Rome. Merchants also bought slaves (pirates brought them in too) as the empire and trade increased. Poor people may even have had a few, whereas the rich may have owned hundreds of thousands. Slavery not identified with race. Christian teaching also taught that slaves should be submissive. All jobs were open to slavery (except military service). They may have been teachers, doctors, actors, etc. (highest and lowest jobs) Rights/protections? A= owners were expected to provide the necessities to them, so they did have security. However, they had no rights. If they were freed they could become citizens. Slavery
Women in China Confucianism strong during Han, Patriarchy also strong (3 obediences=father, husband, son) (200 bce-200ce) yin-yang As Han declined due to invading Huns, the Chinese were influenced by their culture, eventually women gained greater rights, patriarchy loosened…by the time of the Tang (618 CE) women handled legal and business affairs on their own and could inherit property. With the popularity of Daoism and Buddhism, women found more of a place in religious society Patriarchy does NOT end, yet the tone is moderated
Women in Classical Greece Athens: Women were to remain inside and have servants and slaves go outside for them. Poor women had to go outside. Patriarchy very strong, women considered weak and unworthy. Limited education for girls. No legal powers such as selling land. Athens: Women were to remain inside and have servants and slaves go outside for them. Poor women had to go outside. Patriarchy very strong, women considered weak and unworthy. Limited education for girls. No legal powers such as selling land. Sparta: Women were not secluded, they married men of their own age. Because men were away, women exercised more authority at home. They were educated and also took part in sport competitions. Clothing less restrictive too. Still a patriarchy. Sparta: Women were not secluded, they married men of their own age. Because men were away, women exercised more authority at home. They were educated and also took part in sport competitions. Clothing less restrictive too. Still a patriarchy.