18Changes and Continuities of the classical era ▪The Greek conquest of the Persian Empire under the leadership of Alexander the Great was both novel and unexpected.▪The Roman Empire encompassed the entire Mediterranean basin in a single political system for the first time.▪Buddhism and Christianity emerged as new, distinct, and universal religious traditions, although both bore the marks of their origin in Hindu and Jewish religions.▪The collapse of dynasties, empires, and civilizations, while seemingly solidly entrenched, were seen as something new.▪China’s scholar-gentry class retained its prominence throughout the ups and downs of changing dynasties and into the 20th century.▪India’s caste-based social structure still endures as a way of thinking and behaving for hundreds of millions of people on the South Asian peninsula.▪Slavery remained an important and largely unquestioned part of civilization until the 19th century.▪Patriarchy has been the most fundamental, long-lasting, and taken-for-granted feature of all civilizations.
31Chapter 6: Eurasian Social Hierarchies, 500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. iClickerQuestions
32Comparison: Religions and philosophies that developed during the classical era a. always supported the existing social structure.b. never supported the existing social structure.c. included both traditions that supported and traditions that undermined the existing social structure.d. supported the existing social structure except in India where Buddhism proved a significant challenge to the traditional social structure.
33Comparison: In comparison to classical era China and India, in classical Greece and Rome a. slaves were trusted to perform fewer different types of tasks.b. slavery was much less common.c. slaves were much more likely to be debtors or convicts.d. slavery was more central to the economy.
34Change: Which of the following statements concerning the patterns of social life in the classical era is true?a. All classical era societies saw dramatic changes in their social structures.b. Most classical era societies witnessed significant declines in the restrictiveness of patriarchal systems for women when compared to First Civilizations.c. The most important single development was the emergence of slavery during the period.d. Strong states such as those in Rome and China strengthened social inequality.
35a. Spartan b. Indian c. Chinese d. Athenian Discussion Starter: As a non-elite person, say from a peasant farming family, which classical civilization’s social structure would you prefer to live in?a. Spartanb. Indianc. Chinesed. Athenian
36Discussion Starter: In which of the following slave traditions would you prefer to be a slave? a. Classical Indiab. Classical Romec. Early modern system in the Americasd. Classical China
37Discussion Starter: Where would you rather have lived, classical China or classical India? a. I would have rather lived in classical China.b. I would have rather lived in classical India.