Presentation on theme: "Unit 2: Classical Period 600 BCE – 600 CE"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 2: Classical Period 600 BCE – 600 CE The Classical EmpiresUnit 2: Classical Period600 BCE – 600 CE
2 Learning Targets/Key Themes Students will be able to:Define an empire and explain why empires rise and fallDescribe the basic features of the earliest empiresAnalyze the key interactions between Classical EmpiresThese themes, along with the key vocabulary (See handout) will be the basis for your test at the end of this unit
3 Answer the following questions in your notebook: How would you define the term “empire”?What are the reasons an empire is created?
4 What is an Empire?A state with political control of people and regions with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds
5 Why Are Empires Created? Strong sense of PatriotismExtreme pride in one’s countryExpansionTo benefit the regions being conqueredTo eliminate threatsEconomic gainTo create a buffer zone (protection)To spread religious beliefsTo gain political power
6 Characteristics of an Empire Diverse populationStrong governmentStrong militaryStrong diplomacyPeaceful negotiations between two countries or regions
7 The Classical Period (600 BCE – 600 CE) Main Characteristics:Growth of EmpiresGrowth of TradeCultural DiffusionSpreading of cultural ideas and traditions from one region to another
8 Review: What is an empire? Why are empires created? What is cultural diffusion?
9 Major Classical Civilizations PersiaChina (Zhou, Qin, Han dynasties)India (Gupta dynasty)GreeceRomeMayans (Americas)
10 The Persian Empire (558-332 BCE) Founded by Cyrus the GreatDarius I ( BCE)Balanced central government and local leadersDivided government into 3 districts to make it easier to controlBuilt Royal RoadFought in many wars that lead to the decline of the empire
12 Persian Empire Persian Society Persian Economy Persian Religion Women worked in textile manufacturingGovernment used slaves to complete public works projectsPersian EconomyGovernment coined moneyTraded with Greeks and IndiansMain City: PersepolisPersian ReligionZoroastrianism
13 Classical China Zhou Dynasty (1029- 258 BCE) Mandate of Heaven Rulers are given the right to rule by the godsStrong landowners and weak emperorEnds in civil war for two hundred yearsLeads to development of major philosophies
14 Chinese Philosophies Confucianism Daoism Legalism Founded by Confucius Relationships create an orderly societyFamily is foundation of societyDaoism“Dao” – the wayLook to nature for orderLegalismHumans are naturally evil and will only obey authority through force
15 Qin Dynasty (221-202 BCE) Used Legalism to restore order Took away power from aristocracyStrong centralized governmentUnified ChinaStandard language and writing systemUniform laws throughout empire
16 Shi Huangdi Proclaimed himself “First Emperor” Centralized power by banning local militariesBuilt roads to improve communicationsStarted building the Great Wall of ChinaForced laborAlso built his own tomb with the Terracotta Army
19 Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) Founded by a peasant Longest Chinese dynastyConquered Vietnam, Korea and parts of Central AsiaTraded with India, Rome, PersiaContinued building Great Wall of ChinaReformed governmentPromoted Confucianism
20 Ancient Greece Geography prevented political unification Main Problems Developed strong city- states instead Athens and SpartaMain ProblemsWars with PersiaWars between city-statesPeloponnesian Wars ( BCE)Athens vs. SpartaLeads to downfall of Greek city-states
21 Alexander the Great (332-323 BCE) Alex’s father, Philip II, conquered most of GreeceBuilt a massive empire, including Greece, Egypt, and PersiaTries to invade India, but his military refusesAfter death, empire divided in three partsMain Contribution: HellenismBlending of Greek and Middle Eastern/Asian cultures
22 Roman Republic (509-44 BCE) Political System ConsulsSenate (patricians upper class)Tribunes (plebians lower class)Focused on military expansionLaws Twelve TablesCreated laws that everyone must followProtected the lower classes
23 End of the Roman Republic Growing Tensions between the rich and poorFood shortages, not enough opportunities to own land or get certain jobsJulius CaesarGeneral in Roman Army44 BCE: Invades Rome with his own military and declares himself “dictator for life”Assassinated by upper- class senators
24 The Roman Empire (31 BCE – 476 CE) Established by Augustus CaesarContinued military expansionFirst true emperor of Rome“Pax Romana” (Roman Peace)Height of Roman Empire; Great cultural and political achievementsNOT a dynasty (Unlike China and India)Succession based on military strengthTolerated local customs and religionsLaws and Nationalism held empire together
26 The Decline of the Roman Empire 1). How did the geography of Greece impact its political development?2). Describe the City-State of Sparta. (culture, lifestyle, economy)3). Describe the City-State of Athens. (culture, lifestyle, economy)4). Which city-state would you wish to live in back in Ancient Greece? Explain why in complete sentences.5). Why was Alexander the Great able to conquer Greece so easily?6). What is Hellenism and how is Alexander the Great connected to it?7). Describe the Structure of the Roman Republic.8). Why is Augustus Caesar considered the 1st Emperor of Rome?9). What is the difference between Plebeians and Patricians?10). Thoroughly explain 1 reason why the Roman Empire fell in 476c.e.