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Chapter 3: Territorial Expansion during the Antebellum Period

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1 Chapter 3: Territorial Expansion during the Antebellum Period
Standard USHC-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how economic developments and the westward movement impacted regional differences and democracy in the early nineteenth century. Enduring Understanding Political conflict is often the result of competing social values and economic interests. To understand how different perspectives based on differing interests and backgrounds led to political conflict in the antebellum United States, the student will utilize the knowledge and skills set forth in the following indicators: Indicators

2 USHC-2.1 Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy, including the expansion of the franchise, the displacement of Native Americans from the southeast and conflicts over states’ rights and federal power during the era of Jacksonian democracy as the result of major land acquisitions such as the Louisiana Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, and the Mexican Cession USHC-2.2 Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny affected the United States’ relationships with foreign powers, including the role of the United States in the Texan Revolution and the Mexican War. USHC-2.3 Compare the economic development in different regions (the South, the North, and the West) of the United States during the early nineteenth century, including ways that economic policy contributed to political controversies. USHC-2.4 Compare the social and cultural characteristics of the North, the South, and the West during the antebellum period, including the lives of African Americans and social reform movements such as abolition and women’s rights. .

3 Chapter 3 Terms Northwest Ordinance Louisiana Purchase War of 1812
Andrew Jackson Battle of New Orleans Monroe Doctrine Manifest Destiny Missouri Compromise Annexation of Texas Oregon Territory Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo Gadsden Purchase Compromise of 1850 Cherokee Trail of Tears Cotton gin Sectionalism Plantation system Factory system Tariffs American System Democracy Jacksonian Democracy Universal suffrage Second National Bank Temperance movement Abolitionist movement Women’s rights movement

4 Essential Questions Describe the effects of the War of 1812.
What was the Tail of Tears? What impact did cotton have on western settlement? Describe Henry clay’s “American system”. What was Andrew Jackson’s view concerning suffrage? What was the Second-Great Awakening?

5 3.1 Territorial Expansion
With the victory over the French in the French and Indian War, Britain took possession of the Northeast Territory. Following the American Revolution, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance which divided the area into even smaller territories. It also provided guidelines under which new states could be admitted. Under the ordinance, slavery was not permitted in the new territories.

6 The Louisiana Purchase
Once in office, President Jefferson wanted to secure the U.S. trading on the Mississippi River. He sent representatives to France to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans. Napoleon was not interested, however when Britain resumed its war with France the French emperor surprised Jefferson by offering to sell not only New Orleans but the entire Louisiana region. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 was the U.S. largest land purchase. It roughly doubled the size of the country.

7 The Lewis and Clark Expedition
President Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. Lewis chose William Clark to help him lead the expedition. They departed from St. Louis in May of 1804 and reached the Pacific Northwest coast in November of 1805. They returned to St. Louis in September of 1806 with valuable information about the Oregon and Louisiana territories. This exploration led to the rapid migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest.

8 The War of 1812 As U.S. settlers attempted to move west, they often confronted Native Americans who resisted them. Many settlers blamed the British for wanting to protect their own interest. They also felt threatened by the British presence in Canada. This combined with the British navy’s policy of impressing U.S. sailors meant that many in the U.S. wanted war. On June 18, 1812, congress declared war on Great Britain.

9 The War of 1812 cont. The War of 1812 began with many in the U.S. hoping to win land from the British in Canada and the Spanish in Florida. The British invaded and burned Washington DC in august of 1814. The U.S. won an inspiring victory at Fort McHenry shortly after the DC burning. The bravery of the U.S. soldiers inspired Francis Scott Key to write the initial draft of the Star Spangled Banner. U.S. commander Andrew Jackson won major victories at Horseshoe Bend and at New Orleans. The U.S. won the war and signed the Treaty of Ghent but it did not grant any official land to the U.S., but it did keep the Mississippi river and the frontier open.

10 Nationalism The Monroe Doctrine
The War of 1812 led to a rise in U.S. nationalism. U.S. manufacturers proved capable of supplying the country with goods and this boosted the morale and the economy. The Monroe Doctrine With the end of the War of 1812 and the federalist party, the U.S. entered a period of national pride and political unity known as the Era of Good Feelings. President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823. The Monroe Doctrine stated that the U.S. would not tolerate European intervention in the affairs of any independent nation in the Americas. He also made it clear the U.S. was no longer open to any European colonization and any future attempts would be considered an act of war.

11 Manifest Destiny During the middle of the 19th century or the 1800s , many wanted to add to the U.S. territory. Many leaders and citizens believed it was the country’s destiny to expand and possess territory all the way to the Pacific Ocean. Those who shared this conviction referred to it as “Manifest Destiny”.

12 The Missouri Compromise
As the U.S. expanded west the main political issue was slavery. Free northern states opposed the addition of new slave states. Southern states fear the addition of free states would leave them at a political disadvantage. In 1819, a debate raged in congress over Missouri’s application for statehood. Slave states and free states were equally represented in the Senate. Missouri’s admission would disrupt the balance of power. A proposed bill called for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.

13 The Missouri Compromise
In addition, the southern boundary of Missouri 36º30’N, would become a dividing line for any new states admitted to the union. All new states North of the line would be free states, all new states South of the line would be slave states. President Monroe signed it into law in 1820, It became know as the Missouri Compromise.

14 Texas: Independence and Annexation
In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain and gained control of Texas, which include a large number of U.S. settlers. In 1834 General Antonio Santa Anna assumed power of the Mexican government and tightened his control over Texas. In response, Texans under the leadership of Sam Houston launched a rebellion. On March 6, a small group of Texans took their stand against the Mexican leader at an old mission called the Alamo.

15 Texas: Independence and Annexation cont.
Despite their bravery every Texan who fought at the Alamo perished. Texas remained an independent nation until 1845. The annexation of Texas was a critical issue in the election of 1844. James Polk became the first dark horse presidential nominee in U.S. history. Polk won the election and Congress admitted Texas to the Union as a slave state in 1845.

16 Oregon In 1827, the U.S. and Great Britain had reaffirmed their agreement to occupy the Oregon territory jointly. In 1843, thousands of U.S. settlers moved to Oregon seeking a better life. President Polk approached Britain arguing that the U.S. had a rightful claim to the territory up to 54º40N. This started the slogan or fight. Britain agreed to give up Oregon and the U.S. accepted a treaty declaring the 49 parallel the official boundary. In 1846 Oregon became a U.S. territory.

17 War with Mexico and The Gadsden Purchase
Mexico considered the U.S. annexation of Texas to be an act of aggression. In June 1845, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to lead his troops to the border to settle disputes over the Mexico-U.S. border. He also sent John Sidell to assist and negotiate for the purchase of California. When Mexican troops crossed the border an attacked Taylor, Polk demanded that congress declare war on Mexico. The war was a series of U.S. victories leading up to September 14, 1847, when General Winfield Scott marched his troops into Mexico City and forced Mexico to surrender. After months of negotiations, the U.S. and Mexico finally ended the war with the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo on February 2, 1848. The treaty required Mexico to surrender the New Mexico and California territories to the U.S. in 1853, the Gadsden Purchase gave the U.S. parts of present day New Mexico and Arizona for 10 million dollars.

18 The Cherokee and The Trail of Tears
Territorial expansion greatly affected Native Americans. One tribe that was prominent in western North Carolina and Georgia was the Cherokee. The Cherokee had assisted Andrew Jackson in his victory at Horseshoe Bend during the war of 1812. When gold was discovered on the Cherokee land in Georgia, the U.S. government took action to move the tribe. In 1830, congress passed the Indian Removal Act, This law authorized the removal of the Cherokee and other tribes from the southeast U.S.

19 The Cherokee and The Trail of Tears
The Supreme court ruled that the Cherokee had the right to remain on their land and could not be forcibly removed. President Andrew Jackson disregarded the Court’s decision. In 1838 after Jackson left office, the U.S. government forcibly removed the Cherokee. They were forced to march eight hundred miles to reservations in Oklahoma. Over one quarter of the Cherokee people died from disease, starvation and exposure to the bitter cold during the journey. Their march became know as “The Trail of Tears”

20 California Becomes A State
In 1848, gold was discovered just north of Sacramento, California. The following year gold seekers came from all over the world as part of the California Gold Rush of 1849. These people became know as 49ers. This great increased California's population. This growth produced a need for a stable government overnight. The debate over slavery prevented congress from organizing the territory. Californians took matters into their own hands by drafting a approving a state Constitution. The Compromise of 1850 allowed congress to admit California as a free state on September 9, 1850.

21 3.2 Sectional Differences

22 The West Settlers had different motivations for moving west, for some it was religious faith. The Mormons moved west to escape religious persecution. Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the Mormons journeyed west and settled in present day Utah. Gold was another reason people went west, Ten years later in 1859, large numbers of people rushed to the western region of Nevada after the discovery of the Comstock Lode. It was the richest discovery of precious ores in history. As cotton became more and more profitable, many southerners pushed west to grow cotton. Western settlers grew to value independence and did not want intrusion from a strong national government.

23 Economic Differences between
The North and South By the 1800s, slavery was a major part of the nation’s economy. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. The cotton gin was a machine that separated the seeds from cotton. The gin made cotton the most profitable crop in the south. This resulted in the region becoming known as the “Cotton Kingdom”. In the north, however it was another of Whitney’s innovations that helped shaped the economy. Whitney implemented the concept of interchangeable parts. Instead of making muskets one at a time it could now mass produced individual parts that could be used on any muskets.

24 Political Differences Sparked by Sectionalism
Major differences arose between the different regions politically. Southerners and westerners believed the federal government should restrict itself to powers specifically stated in the Constitution. Southerners did not trust northern politicians whom they believed were out to end slavery. Many westerners resented eastern politicians and business leaders who they felt favored big business over small independent landowners. Northerners were more prone to support a strong central government.

25 Henry Clay’s American System
The American system was a plan designed to unite the nation and make it more economically independent following the War of 1812. It called for a tariff, internal improvements and a strong national bank. Clay underestimated the nation’s growing sectionalism. While many Northerners supported the plan, Southerners tended to oppose it because they saw the tariffs as benefitting northern businesses at the expense of the southern farmer. Meanwhile people in the West also felt that the plan was designed to help eastern business at the expense of other regions of the country.

26 3.3 Democracy As more and more people moved west to settle, the cry for democracy increased. The U.S. Constitution established the national government as a republic. Only members of an elite ruling class tended to win election to high offices. Only white men who owned property could vote. Most westerners were small landowners and pioneers. Some did not own enough property to qualify to vote. These people did not trust eastern elites to protect their interests.

27 Andrew Jackson Westerners and poorer Americans eventually found their leader in Andrew Jackson. Jackson was viewed as a “common man” He was not born into the rich upper class but instead achieved his success despite growing up poor. As a result he was very popular with western frontier settlers and common folk. In 1824, he took advantage of his popularity and ran for president.

28 A Corrupt Bargain The presidential election of 1824 was evidence of the sectional differences in the U.S. The election came down to John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson and was so close that the House of Representatives had to decide a winner. When Henry clay threw his support to Adams it was enough to give Adams the victory. When Clay was named secretary of state, Jackson and his supporters denounced it as a “corrupt bargain”. Four years later Jackson defeated Adams to become the nation’s president.

29 Universal (White Male) Suffrage
Jackson’s brand of politics came to be called Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson believed strongly in western expansion and the rights of the white frontier. Jackson favored universal suffrage. He believed all white men should be free to vote, not just those that owned property. With the support of men like Jackson almost all of the states dropped property requirements for voting. Expanding suffrage made the nation more democratic. Even Jackson did not attempt to extend the right to vote to women, blacks, or Native Americans.

30 (Strict interpretation and Laissez-Faire Economics)
The “Spoils System” (Strict interpretation and Laissez-Faire Economics) Once in office Jackson instituted a policy of rewarding his political supporters with governmental positions. This policy became known as the spoils system. This led to corruption and a call for reform in later administrations. Jackson and his followers favored laissez-faire economics. They believed the government should not regulate business. Jackson also had a strict interpretation of the Constitution. Jackson believed the president should have more power than Congress. He opposed policies that rewarded the rich or big business. (cont.)

31 (Strict interpretation and Laissez-Faire Economics
The “Spoils System” (Strict interpretation and Laissez-Faire Economics This conviction led to a huge battle between Jackson and the Second-National Bank in 1832. He saw it as a violation of the constitution. His opponents favored the bank. Jackson’s opponents thought the presidents opposition to the banks would cost him the election. They were wrong, Jackson won the election and the bank lost its charter. Now the money was placed in state banks and this system worked poorly, and soon the nation faced an economic crisis.

32 Return of the Two-Party System
Eventually, sharp differences between Jackson and men like Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and John C. Calhoun led to a break in the Democratic-Republican Party. Jackson’s wing took the name Democrats. His opponents adopted the name National Republics. Eventually many of the National-Republicans formed a new party, the Whigs. They chose the name because it was the name of the British Party that opposed King George III. During the Revolutionary War. They chose this for their dislike of the President. After an “era of good feelings” the two-party returned to national politics with a vengeance.

33 3.4 Social Reforms A number of social reforms movements began during the 1800’s. These movements aimed to transform society in beneficial ways. Many who participated were inspired by religious movements. The Second Great awakening had many zealous Christian preachers that traveled from revival to revival. They called on believers to become socially active and impact society through good works. As a result religion motivated many to become social reformers. Others just simply wanted to improve the world they live in.

34 Temperance During the early 19th century, the temperance movement began gaining popularity. Members of this movement wanted to moderate the use of alcohol. Later they advocated total abstinence form alcohol and convinced many states to pass laws prohibiting its sale. The temperance movement owed much of its success to the efforts of women and church leaders in the U.S.

35 The Abolitionist Movement
In the 1830’s, the abolitionist movement gained momentum, despite being seen as a movement by fanatics. As always slavery remained a hot topic in the nation. The South found itself dependent on the practice for economic support. Meanwhile in the north, a movement to abolish slavery was growing. White members of this movement were mostly middle class, educated, church people from New England (many were Quakers). Black abolitionists were mostly former slaves. Eventually the movement gained support . It gave birth to a a new political party and changed the course of the nation.

36 Women’s Rights Movements
Women had participated in the abolitionist and temperance movements, only to face discrimination from the men who they had served. The offense the women suffered led to the birth of the women’s rights movement. This movement eventually made women’s suffrage (the right to vote) its main cause.

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