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ASPECTS OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE 3 SEPT 06, 2013 – DAY 5 Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University.

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Presentation on theme: "ASPECTS OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE 3 SEPT 06, 2013 – DAY 5 Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University."— Presentation transcript:

1 ASPECTS OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE 3 SEPT 06, 2013 – DAY 5 Brain & Language LING NSCI Harry Howard Tulane University

2 Course organization The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at If you want to learn more about EEG and neurolinguistics, you are welcome to participate in my lab. This is also a good way to get started on an honor's thesis. 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 2

3 Review Articulatory phonetics 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 3 Place/ Manner Bilabial Labio- dental Inter- dental AlveolarPalatalVelarGlottal Stop p bt dk g ʔ Nasal m n ŋ Affricate ʧ ʤ Fricative f vθ ðs z ʃ ʒ h Liquid l,r Glide ʍ w y

4 How do you pronounce these words? bilabial stops alveolar stops velar stops pintinkin spinstinkskin nipnitnick bindinbegin sbinsdinsgin nibbidbig 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 4 [p ʰ, t ʰ, k ʰ ] - voiceless aspirated [p, t, k] - voiceless [p, t, k] - voiceless unreleased [b, d, g] - voiced [*b, *d, *g] - ungrammatical voiced [b, d, g] - voiced How many voiceless stops does English have? Can words be distinguished by aspiration or lack of release? (see next slide)

5 The answer is … 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 5 /p, t, k/ [p ʰ, t ʰ, k ʰ ] at the beginning of a syllable [p, t, k] at the end of a word [p, t, k] everywhere else these are phonemes; realm of phonology and distinctive features these are phones or allophones; realm of phonetics and non-distinctive features

6 Review Phonology 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 6 Khmer contrastive voiceless stops [p ɔ :ŋ] to wish [p ʰɔ :ŋ] also [t ɔ p] to support [t ʰɔ p] be suffocated [kat]to cut [k ʰ at] to polish English /p/ [p] [p ʰ ] Khmer [p] [p ʰ ] /p/ /p ʰ /

7 ASPECTS OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE Ingram §2: Prosody 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 7

8 Segmental vs. suprasegmental So far, we have been talking about discrete units of speech, e.g. [k, i, m]. These are called segments, because they act like isolatable bits of speech. But there is another group of speech ‘sounds’ that are much more difficult to isolate into free-standing, repeating units. These are called suprasegmentals, because they are either larger than segments or dependent on segments in some sense. They make up the study of prosody. 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 8

9 Intro to prosody What is a syllable? Smallest unit that can be pronounced. Usually contains a vowel: a > ra > tra > tran > trank > strank English is strange: ladder [læ.d ɹ̩ ], ladle [le.dl ̩ ], laden [le.dn ̩ ]; bottle [ba. ʔɹ l ̩ ] What are the building blocks of prosody? stress prominence relations among syllables rhythm patterns of stress in time intonation linguistic use of voice pitch And maybe volume, though there is not much to say about it. 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 9

10 (Word) stress What did you learn about (word) stress? Is it contrastive in English? address ~ address compress ~ compress export ~ export insult ~ insult convert ~ convert Compare to Spanish termino ~ termino ~ termino 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 10

11 Changes in stress phrasecompound noun hot dog burn out green house How do you pronounce ‘14’? After eating fourteen, cakes did not tempt him. After eating fourteen cakes, he threw up. 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 11 ‘frankfurter’ ‘dog which is hot’ ‘exhaustion’ ‘burn until all gone’ ‘glass building’ ‘house which is green’ After eating fourteen cakes, he threw up. English stress tends to fall at the end of a unit, but it can be ‘retracted’ onto the previous syllable.

12 Intonation What did you learn about intonation? 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 12

13 ASPECTS OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE Morphology 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 13

14 A quick intro Divide the following words into morphemes. Be sure you can tell which morphemes are free, bound, prefixes, suffixes, roots and stems. blueberry cranberry vision antidisestablishmentarianism anti – dis – [establish] - ment - ari – an - ism 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 14

15 NEXT TIME Q1 – 10 items (multiple choice, true/false, fill in the blank) Finish §2: syntax & summary 9/6/13Brain & Language - Harry Howard - Tulane University 15


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