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Focusing on the southeast.  Two main chronological periods  16 th c – Spanish in la Florida  Late 17 th early 18 th C English in Virginia and south.

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Presentation on theme: "Focusing on the southeast.  Two main chronological periods  16 th c – Spanish in la Florida  Late 17 th early 18 th C English in Virginia and south."— Presentation transcript:

1 Focusing on the southeast

2  Two main chronological periods  16 th c – Spanish in la Florida  Late 17 th early 18 th C English in Virginia and south Carolina

3  Slavery a constant factor in history Un-free labor more normal than free labor  Was seen in Greco-Roman world  Continued up to the time of European expansion into the Americas  It seemed logical to the Spanish who had recently conquer Spain and taken ‘moors’ captive and then spread to the canary island where they took more captives  That captives would come from the “New world”

4  Slavery existed in the American south before the arrival of Europeans  However, as with slavery in Africa as Native Americans became caught up in the dynamics of European expansion  The institution assumed new directions  Both in Volume And style

5  Anyone without a clan were referred to as ‘atsi nahsa’i or “one who is owned”’  Term and social position British equated with slavery  Certain Cherokee actions appeared to confirm this impression  E.g. a mid-eighteenth century interaction between an atsi nahsa’i, a Shawnee war captive, and his ‘owner,’ a Cherokee named Black Dog.

6  1747, a party of Shawnee and French visited the Cherokee on a diplomatic mission  Passing location where the Shawnee had gathered before leaving  Black Dog spotted his ‘slave’  ordered him to leave the group

7  The atsi nahsa’i,  possibly emboldened by the presence of other Shawnee,  refused Black Dog’s order,  In reaction, Black Dog sunk his tomahawk into his ‘slave’s’ head and threw the dead body into the river.

8  Actions such as this convinced the British that the atsi nahsa’i were indeed slaves.  Yet linkage was not as clear-cut as first appears  John Lawson’s 1707 A New Voyage to Carolina

9  Lawson wrote of ‘Indian’ servants and slaves in the following terms:  Although a British slaveholder of the period would understand the link between ‘domestick Beasts’ such as cattle and human slaves  it is hard to imagine the same slaveholder acknowledging an eagle in the same category  “As for Servant they have no such thing, except slave, and their Dogs, Cats, tame or domestick Beasts, and Birds are all call’d by the same name: For the Indian Word for Slave includes them all. So when an Indian tells you he has got a Slave for you, it may (in general Terms, as they use) be a young Eagle, a Dog, Otter, or any other thing of that nature”

10  As Spanish entradas spread over the southeast in the 16 th C they captured slaves in large numbers  Ayllon and De Soto took hundreds of slaves away with them  Used in the growing plantation economies of the Caribbean  Throughout the 16 th c a minimum of 4-5000 native American Slaves exported by Spanish from the mainland

11  When English arrived in VA  Showed little interest in Native American Slaves  The crown, business men and other propagandists all explained why  The Church of England and civilized Englishmen  were not like the evil Spanish  Real reason  Before 1620s England had no plantation economy islands in the Caribbean

12  After around 1620-22 Indian slavery began to grow  Official population figures often did not include Native Americans e.g. 1679 70,000 – 80,000 total Inc 15,000 servants & 3,000 Africans  Yet statutes, bills of sale and wills suggest otherwise  1649 colonist must “purchase” Indian Children from Indian, not English Owners  1658 Indian children had to serve until 25 years of age

13  1660 a number of natives who had refused to pay damages assessed by court, ordered to be  “seized, sold at auction, and sent off to the West Indies or elsewhere”  1660 Law any “foreign” Indians captured i.e. non Virginian  And those imported to the colony were to remain slaves for life

14  Governor Berkeley of Virginia  Purchased two Native Americans for 600lbs of tobacco in 1645  Sold “one good Indian man” for 2,000lbs of tobacco in 1677  All freemen had a duty to capture runaways slaves  If the slave was killed during capture the owner would be compensated 4,500lbs for a African 3,000lbs for an Indian

15  Lords proprietors of colony were also members of Royal Africa Company  Early settlers known as Goose Creek men  came from the West Indies and saw slavery as natural and necessary

16  1716 Indian Commissioners  Sent branding irons to traders to mark both deer skins and slaves  Court records and wills mention the names of 5,500 native slaves, identified by name  Spanish Governor of St Augustine complained that during Queen Anne’s war the English carried of 10,000 – 12,000 Natives from their community as slaves

17  1704 Indian trader named James Moore returned from Apalachee he had:  4,000 women and children  Less than 300 men

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