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Freedom and Partition in India

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1 Freedom and Partition in India
Chapter 9

2 Amritsar Massacre 1919 The turning point in India’s struggle for freedom Violence increased in India It began the call for many Indian to call for complete separation from Britain

3 Amritsar Massacre Causes Ridiculous Rules forced against the Indians
All Indians must crawl on their hands and knees on a city street Indiscriminate whippings



6 “The Indians were ‘packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies’; the people ‘ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and fire was then directed on the ground. This continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion…” Winston Churchill

7 Amritsar Massacre British Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was honored at home for crushing the Indians Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."

8 Results of Amritsar Massacre
379 Indians dead >1,100 Indians injured British General Dyer, honored at home All Indians united against British Nationalist movement took off

9 Gandhi Born: Oct. 2, 1869 Died: Jan. 30, 1948 Assassinated

10 Mohandas Gandhi Born into a middle class family
Leader of India’s freedom movement (INC) Lawyer – trained in Britain, practiced in South Africa Helped unite the various groups within India to fight for a common cause



13 First Action for Indian Civil Rights
In South Africa, fighting for Indian rights Civil Disobedience – The active refusal to obey certain laws or the demands of an oppressive government Non-violence – ex. Rosa Parks, MLK Jr.



16 Gandhi’s Principles His beliefs were a blend of Hindu and Christian beliefs Non-violent resistance to end injustice Satyagraha = truth force – convert the wrongdoer Inspiration Hindu – nonviolence, respect for all life Christianity – love one’s enemies

17 Gandhi’s Principles He wanted the world to see the injustice in India without using violence Gandhi wanted the British to see the err in their wrong doings The same principles were used with apartheid in South Africa



20 Gandhi’s Principles Poster
Create a quote for one of Gandhi’s principles Explain how your quote fits in with Gandhi’s beliefs Truth Non-violence Vegetarianism Bramacharya - celebacy Simplicity Faith

21 Appealing to all Indians – Returned to India 1915
Gandhi won the support of all groups by stressing India’s heritage Examples Gave up Western ways Spun his own cotton, wore simple white clothing Vegetarianism Wanted to reform caste system (untouchables) Included Muslims

22 Non Violent Protests Gandhi supported nonviolent acts of civil disobedience Boycotted British made goods Supported workers strikes The Salt March Indians were not allowed to make their own salt They had to purchase heavily taxed, British salt

23 The Salt March Gandhi led Indians on a march over 200 miles to the coast They made their own once they reached the ocean Gandhi and 50,000 protesters were arrested Britain responded with violence to the satyagraha protests




27 WWII – Quit India Gandhi leads non-support efforts in India during World War II India would support Britain if they were granted immediate independence, Britain refused More protests, Gandhi arrested again India gains independence August 15, 1947

28 Gandhi & Hindu/Muslim Conflict
Deep differences led to conflict Muslims feared the Hindu Nationalists would not grant them rights Gandhi hoped the two could live peacefully together, with independence

29 Two Nations; disappointed Gandhi
The subcontinent was divided (partitioned) into: Muslim, Pakistan & Bangladesh Hindu, India 500,000 died in the fighting between the two nations Gandhi refused to celebrate Indian independence b/c of the violence

30 India After Gandhi

31 India after Gandhi Gandhi assassinated about 1 year after India’s independence Sub-continent divided into different nations India creates a federal government with 25 states and 7 territories



34 India’s Government The largest democracy in the world; 1.1 billion people Parliamentary System – similar to GB President: little power Prime Minister: real power; leader of political party Two houses in parliament Multi-party state – over 12 political parties

35 Indian Flag

36 Politics in India 18 years old to vote
Political parties use symbols because many of the population cannot read or write; 61% total, 73% men, 48% women Political Identities – Independence, Hindu traditions, etc

37 Civil Rights & Dividing Forces
Progress and the Caste System Helping the lower castes Illegal untouchability Upper caste discontent Cultural Diversity and one Government Naga people revolted against new gov’t Sikh Separatists Hindu-Muslim Conflict

38 Unifying Forces Strong Leaders Commitment to Democratic Traditions
Nehru Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi (all related, not Mohandas Gandhi’s family) Commitment to Democratic Traditions Commitment to Hinduism Modernization

39 Untouchability Read page 207 Answer 2 questions
How could you try to change peoples opinions of untouchables?

40 India’s Economy Questions to Answer
What economic goals did Nehru set for India? What progress has India’s industry made? How has India tried to increase farm output?

41 India’s Economic Development

42 Goals Economic Independence No reliance on other nations
Stop importing goods Ex. machines & finished goods Become self sufficient Limit foreign investment

43 Creating Industry Reduce foreign influence by building factories
Produce their own materials Steel, plastic Produce finished goods Tractors, Trucks Encourage investment by Indians

44 India’s Textile Industry
Video Clip Effects of Industry Economic Concerns Test Questions What changes to life have occurred as a result of the growth of industry List concerns the government has about industrialization

45 Homework Page 209 # 4,5 Page 213 # 3-5

46 Agriculture & Patterns of Life India

47 Improving Agriculture
Increase irrigation Beat the dry season dams, canals Land reform Redistribute land to peasants Fighting against political forces Increase technology Super seeds – wheat, rice Fertilizer & irrigation

48 Patterns of Life – Independent India
Village life little change, electricity, clothing, economies Looking towards the future with technology & healthcare The Caste System Laws have had limited success breaking traditions Education & employment influenced by the past Urbanization has weakened the caste system

49 Patterns of Life – Independent India
Education 1947 – 10% literacy; 2001 – 61% literacy ½ attend schools, more boys than girls Government focus to improve quality of life Family life 95% arrange marriages, even today Urbanization has changed family structure Women have gained rights In villages women play traditional roles

50 Patterns of Life Women’s lives
Rural – similarities to traditional Indian Life, take care of family, raise children Urban – more chance for education and opportunities

51 Urban Life Combination of modern and high tech and slums

52 Slums of Mumbai

53 Modern Mumbai

54 Pakistan & Bangladesh

55 Pakistan 1947 – East & West Pakistan after Britain gave up control
M. East Drought East S. E. Asia Floods

56 Pakistan Civil War Both populations have Islam as common religion
West dominated gov’t & economy 1971 East Pakistan becomes the nation of Bangladesh

57 Economy in Pakistan Attention to increasing agriculture
Reduce dependence on foreign governments Build industry Steel Chemical Auto Textiles

58 Homework Page 220 2-5

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