6“The Indians were ‘packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies’; the people ‘ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and fire was then directed on the ground. This continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion…” Winston Churchill
7Amritsar MassacreBritish Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was honored at home for crushing the IndiansRattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."
8Results of Amritsar Massacre 379 Indians dead>1,100 Indians injuredBritish General Dyer, honored at homeAll Indians united against BritishNationalist movement took off
10Mohandas Gandhi Born into a middle class family Leader of India’s freedom movement (INC)Lawyer – trained in Britain, practiced in South AfricaHelped unite the various groups within India to fight for a common cause
13First Action for Indian Civil Rights In South Africa, fighting for Indian rightsCivil Disobedience – The active refusal to obey certain laws or the demands of an oppressive governmentNon-violence – ex. Rosa Parks, MLK Jr.
16Gandhi’s PrinciplesHis beliefs were a blend of Hindu and Christian beliefsNon-violent resistance to end injusticeSatyagraha = truth force – convert the wrongdoerInspirationHindu – nonviolence, respect for all lifeChristianity – love one’s enemies
17Gandhi’s PrinciplesHe wanted the world to see the injustice in India without using violenceGandhi wanted the British to see the err in their wrong doingsThe same principles were used with apartheid in South Africa
20Gandhi’s Principles Poster Create a quote for one of Gandhi’s principlesExplain how your quote fits in with Gandhi’s beliefsTruthNon-violenceVegetarianismBramacharya - celebacySimplicityFaith
21Appealing to all Indians – Returned to India 1915 Gandhi won the support of all groups by stressing India’s heritageExamplesGave up Western waysSpun his own cotton, wore simple white clothingVegetarianismWanted to reform caste system (untouchables)Included Muslims
22Non Violent ProtestsGandhi supported nonviolent acts of civil disobedienceBoycotted British made goodsSupported workers strikesThe Salt MarchIndians were not allowed to make their own saltThey had to purchase heavily taxed, British salt
23The Salt MarchGandhi led Indians on a march over 200 miles to the coastThey made their own once they reached the oceanGandhi and 50,000 protesters were arrestedBritain responded with violence to the satyagraha protests
27WWII – Quit IndiaGandhi leads non-support efforts in India during World War IIIndia would support Britain if they were granted immediate independence, Britain refusedMore protests, Gandhi arrested againIndia gains independence August 15, 1947
28Gandhi & Hindu/Muslim Conflict Deep differences led to conflictMuslims feared the Hindu Nationalists would not grant them rightsGandhi hoped the two could live peacefully together, with independence
29Two Nations; disappointed Gandhi The subcontinent was divided (partitioned) into:Muslim, Pakistan & BangladeshHindu, India500,000 died in the fighting between the two nationsGandhi refused to celebrate Indian independence b/c of the violence
34India’s GovernmentThe largest democracy in the world; 1.1 billion peopleParliamentary System – similar to GBPresident: little powerPrime Minister: real power; leader of political partyTwo houses in parliamentMulti-party state – over 12 political parties
36Politics in India 18 years old to vote Political parties use symbols because many of the population cannot read or write; 61% total, 73% men, 48% womenPolitical Identities – Independence, Hindu traditions, etc
37Civil Rights & Dividing Forces Progress and the Caste SystemHelping the lower castesIllegal untouchabilityUpper caste discontentCultural Diversity and one GovernmentNaga people revolted against new gov’tSikh SeparatistsHindu-Muslim Conflict
38Unifying Forces Strong Leaders Commitment to Democratic Traditions Nehru Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi (all related, not Mohandas Gandhi’s family)Commitment to Democratic TraditionsCommitment to HinduismModernization
39Untouchability Read page 207 Answer 2 questions How could you try to change peoples opinions of untouchables?
40India’s Economy Questions to Answer What economic goals did Nehru set for India?What progress has India’s industry made?How has India tried to increase farm output?
42Goals Economic Independence No reliance on other nations Stop importing goodsEx. machines & finished goodsBecome self sufficientLimit foreign investment
43Creating Industry Reduce foreign influence by building factories Produce their own materialsSteel, plasticProduce finished goodsTractors, TrucksEncourage investment by Indians
44India’s Textile Industry Video ClipEffects of IndustryEconomic ConcernsTest QuestionsWhat changes to life have occurred as a result of the growth of industryList concerns the government has about industrialization
47Improving Agriculture Increase irrigationBeat the dry seasondams, canalsLand reformRedistribute land to peasantsFighting against political forcesIncrease technologySuper seeds – wheat, riceFertilizer & irrigation
48Patterns of Life – Independent India Village lifelittle change, electricity, clothing, economiesLooking towards the future with technology & healthcareThe Caste SystemLaws have had limited success breaking traditionsEducation & employment influenced by the pastUrbanization has weakened the caste system
49Patterns of Life – Independent India Education1947 – 10% literacy; 2001 – 61% literacy½ attend schools, more boys than girlsGovernment focus to improve quality of lifeFamily life95% arrange marriages, even todayUrbanization has changed family structureWomen have gained rightsIn villages women play traditional roles
50Patterns of Life Women’s lives Rural – similarities to traditional Indian Life, take care of family, raise childrenUrban – more chance for education and opportunities
51Urban LifeCombination of modern and high tech and slums