Presentation on theme: "Freedom and Partition in India Chapter 9. Amritsar Massacre 1919 The turning point in India’s struggle for freedom Violence increased in India It began."— Presentation transcript:
“The Indians were ‘packed together so that one bullet would drive through three or four bodies’; the people ‘ran madly this way and the other. When fire was directed upon the centre, they ran to the sides. The fire was then directed to the sides. Many threw themselves onto the ground, and fire was then directed on the ground. This continued for eight or ten minutes, and it stopped only when the ammunition had reached the point of exhaustion…” Winston Churchill
Amritsar Massacre British Brig. Gen. who led the massacre was honored at home for crushing the Indians Rattan Devi stated, ''I saw three men writhing in great pain and a boy of about 12. I could not leave the place. The boy asked me for water but there was no water in that place. At 2 am, a Jat who was lying entangled on the wall asked me to raise his leg. I went up to him and took hold of his clothes drenched in blood and raised him up. Heaps of bodies lay there, a number of them innocent children. I shall never forget the sight. I spent the night crying and watching..."
Results of Amritsar Massacre 379 Indians dead >1,100 Indians injured British General Dyer, honored at home All Indians united against British Nationalist movement took off
Mohandas Gandhi Born into a middle class family Leader of India’s freedom movement (INC) Lawyer – trained in Britain, practiced in South Africa Helped unite the various groups within India to fight for a common cause
First Action for Indian Civil Rights In South Africa, fighting for Indian rights Civil Disobedience – The active refusal to obey certain laws or the demands of an oppressive government Non-violence – ex. Rosa Parks, MLK Jr.
Gandhi’s Principles His beliefs were a blend of Hindu and Christian beliefs Non-violent resistance to end injustice Satyagraha = truth force – convert the wrongdoer Inspiration –Hindu – nonviolence, respect for all life –Christianity – love one’s enemies
Gandhi’s Principles He wanted the world to see the injustice in India without using violence Gandhi wanted the British to see the err in their wrong doings The same principles were used with apartheid in South Africa
Gandhi’s Principles Poster Truth Non-violence Vegetarianism Bramacharya - celebacy Simplicity Faith Create a quote for one of Gandhi’s principles Explain how your quote fits in with Gandhi’s beliefs
Appealing to all Indians – Returned to India 1915 Gandhi won the support of all groups by stressing India’s heritage –Examples Gave up Western ways Spun his own cotton, wore simple white clothing Vegetarianism Wanted to reform caste system (untouchables) Included Muslims
Non Violent Protests Gandhi supported nonviolent acts of civil disobedience –Boycotted British made goods –Supported workers strikes The Salt March –Indians were not allowed to make their own salt –They had to purchase heavily taxed, British salt
The Salt March - 1930 Gandhi led Indians on a march over 200 miles to the coast They made their own once they reached the ocean Gandhi and 50,000 protesters were arrested Britain responded with violence to the satyagraha protests
WWII – Quit India Gandhi leads non-support efforts in India during World War II India would support Britain if they were granted immediate independence, Britain refused More protests, Gandhi arrested again India gains independence August 15, 1947
Gandhi & Hindu/Muslim Conflict Deep differences led to conflict Muslims feared the Hindu Nationalists would not grant them rights Gandhi hoped the two could live peacefully together, with independence
Two Nations; disappointed Gandhi The subcontinent was divided (partitioned) into: –Muslim, Pakistan & Bangladesh –Hindu, India 500,000 died in the fighting between the two nations Gandhi refused to celebrate Indian independence b/c of the violence
India’s Government The largest democracy in the world; 1.1 billion people Parliamentary System – similar to GB –President: little power –Prime Minister: real power; leader of political party Two houses in parliament Multi-party state – over 12 political parties
Politics in India 18 years old to vote Political parties use symbols because many of the population cannot read or write; 61% total, 73% men, 48% women Political Identities – Independence, Hindu traditions, etc
Civil Rights & Dividing Forces Progress and the Caste System –Helping the lower castes –Illegal untouchability –Upper caste discontent Cultural Diversity and one Government –Naga people revolted against new gov’t Sikh Separatists Hindu-Muslim Conflict
Unifying Forces Strong Leaders –Nehru Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi (all related, not Mohandas Gandhi’s family) Commitment to Democratic Traditions Commitment to Hinduism Modernization
Untouchability Read page 207 Answer 2 questions How could you try to change peoples opinions of untouchables?
India’s Economy Questions to Answer What economic goals did Nehru set for India? What progress has India’s industry made? How has India tried to increase farm output?
Goals Economic Independence –No reliance on other nations –Stop importing goods Ex. machines & finished goods Become self sufficient Limit foreign investment
Creating Industry Reduce foreign influence by building factories Produce their own materials –Steel, plastic Produce finished goods –Tractors, Trucks Encourage investment by Indians
India’s Textile Industry Video Clip Effects of Industry Economic Concerns Test Questions What changes to life have occurred as a result of the growth of industry List concerns the government has about industrialization
Improving Agriculture Increase irrigation –Beat the dry season –dams, canals Land reform –Redistribute land to peasants –Fighting against political forces Increase technology –Super seeds – wheat, rice –Fertilizer & irrigation
Patterns of Life – Independent India Village life –little change, electricity, clothing, economies –Looking towards the future with technology & healthcare The Caste System –Laws have had limited success breaking traditions –Education & employment influenced by the past –Urbanization has weakened the caste system
Patterns of Life – Independent India Education –1947 – 10% literacy; 2001 – 61% literacy –½ attend schools, more boys than girls –Government focus to improve quality of life Family life –95% arrange marriages, even today –Urbanization has changed family structure –Women have gained rights –In villages women play traditional roles
Patterns of Life Women’s lives –Rural – similarities to traditional Indian Life, take care of family, raise children –Urban – more chance for education and opportunities
Urban Life Combination of modern and high tech and slums