Presentation on theme: "Gandhi methods used to achieve Indian Independence from British colonial rule."— Presentation transcript:
Gandhi methods used to achieve Indian Independence from British colonial rule
British Colonial Rule The British ruled India treating the native population as inferior subjects. Economically India suffered while Britain grew wealthier. Modernization occurred, but whom did it benefit?
British Colonial Rule: Amritsar Massacre In 1919, the British military opened fire upon a group of peaceful Indian protestors. Some estimate that over 1,500 were killed and another 500 wounded. Over 120 bodies were pulled out of the well in the center of the square.
Method #1: Non- Cooperation A refusal to cooperate (work for, purchase goods from, etc.) with a government or occupying power.
Non-Cooperation Example #1: Khadi (or Homespun) Khadi (or homespun) are garments made by hand at home. To make clothing you must spin a machine and weave the thread into cloth. Gandhi personally designed a machine that was powered by hand and could fold up into the size of a typewriter. Gandhi advocated that all Indians refuse to purchase British textile goods and instead spin their own Khadi.
Non-Cooperation Example #2 General Strikes Understanding that the British would not profit from India if the native peoples did not work, Gandhi organized several general strikes. These general strikes called for ALL workers, no matter the field of work, refuse to work until the British meet their demands.
Method #2: Civil Disobedience Refusal to obey unjust laws, usually through nonviolent means.
Civil Disobedience Example #1: Dandi Salt March The British colonial government in India made it illegal to make your own salt. All salt had to be purchased from the colonial government and was taxed. Salt was extremely important for many reasons, mainly because it allows meat to keep without refrigeration. Gandhi, practicing civil disobedience by breaking an unjust law, walked 240 miles to the ocean and began making salt.
Civil Disobedience Example #2: Quit India Movement In 1939, Germany attacked Great Britain and World War II began. Indian soldiers and the nation of India was forced into the war by Britain without consultation with the Indian National Congress or other Indian leaders. Gandhi refused to support the war effort and called upon all Indians to refuse military service and for Britain to quit India (release it to home rule)
Satyagraha & Hunger Strikes A Sanskrit word which means truth + force. Gandhis own version of non-violent resistance. Gandhi was adamantly against passive resistance, he said that there is nothing passive about Satyagraha.
Satyagraha & Hunger Strikes On several occasions Gandhi began hunger strikes (refusing to eat until the opposition meets your demands) to oppose British colonial rule of India. Gandhi was arrested and served time in prison 6 different times. Many times during his time in jail, Gandhi began hunger strikes. British authorities, not wanting to Gandhi to become a martyr, would meet his demands and release him from jail. Other times, Gandhi used hunger strikes to keep Hindus and Muslims from committing acts of violence upon one another.