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Introduction to Psychology and Change: Behaviour Modification.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Psychology and Change: Behaviour Modification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Psychology and Change: Behaviour Modification

2 Behaviour  Behavior is everything a person does.  “Behavior” refers to all behaviors, not just problem behaviors.  Behaviors that can be observed Behaviors that can be heard/seen People can agree something happened Behaviors that can be measured

3 Which one is the Behaviour? Kate is angry vs. Kate hit Mark Mary is depressedvs.Mary is crying Ryan is anxiousvs.Ryan is pacing Sue is listening vs.Sue is looking at the speaker

4 Remember: Cognitive Consistency and Dissonance…

5 Cognitive Dissonance/Consistency  Festinger's (1957) Cognitive Dissonance Theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance).  Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to a MODIFICATION in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance – known as Cognitive Consistency.

6 Behaviour Modification  To change or modify one’s behaviour, usually through praise or punishment (based on the theory of operant conditioning)  Teaching acceptable behaviour is most successful with a system of praise or punishment  material things (money), or non-material (encouraging words, acceptance from a group, praise), take away things, etc.

7  According to a theory created by psychologists James Prochaska, John Norcross and Carlo DiClemente,  We must move through a number of stages before we can successfully change called:  Stages of Change: Behaviour Modification Model


9  Make the following headers in your notebook to summarize the Stages of Behaviour Modification Stage:Characteristics:What a person in this stage might say:

10 Stages of Behaviour Modification 1. Pre-contemplation  Denial (“I don’t have a problem”)  Refusal (“I like myself the way I am”) 2. Contemplation  Questioning (“Do you think I should do something about the problem?”) 3. Preparation  Investigation (“What is my problem doing to my health? How does my problem affect those who love me?”)

11 4. Action  Commitment (“ I’ve got to keep doing this or I’ll never change”) 5. Maintenance  Begins about six months after Action stage begins  Transition (“I must find alternative ways to deal with my problems. I must avoid people who are going to drag me back into my old habits.”) 6. Termination  Only about 20% of changers reach this stage  Completion (“I don’t have to work at this any more. I just don’t want to go back to my old ways.”)  High risk for relapse

12 What is Abnormal?  The term abnormal literally refers to any departure from the social normative (conformity from the group).  Term abnormal is subjective (personal opinion/feeling)  Maladaptive behaviour – psychological disorders that cause distress or discomfort and interfere with people’s ability to lead satisfying, productive lives because they are unable to adapt to the environment.

13 Mental Illness  Mental illness (psychiatric disorders): A disorderly functioning of the mind.  In general, mental illness refers to clinically significant patterns of behavioural or emotional functioning that are associated with some level of distress, suffering, or impairment of one or more areas of everyday functioning (i.e. school, work, family & social interactions).  Canada bases or judges someone mentally unwell under several criteria.

14 Three major areas of these criteria are:  Persistent personal unhappiness  Inability to function in society  Antisocial behaviour that harms self or other individuals.

15 DSM-IV  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision  Manual for classifying psychological disorders that assesses an individuals symptoms

16 Categories of Mental Illness…

17 Mental Disorders  Psychologists classify mental disorders in three categories:  First: Neuroses (singular Neurosis) sufferers experience high levels of anxiety or tension in managing their daily lives. These individuals usually react to situations that most people would not find dangerous at all.  EX….panic attacks, phobias, OCD, Depression

18 Mental Disorders  Second: Psychoses ( singular Psychosis) patient has lost touch with the real world, may suffer from hallucinations or delusions. These individuals have their own perception of reality that is totally different from those shared by most people.  Examples : Severe Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Paranoia: suffer from irrational thoughts of persecution, Schizophrenia: complex disorder which leads to feelings of distress and isolation.

19 Mental Disorders Third: Anti-Social Personality Disorder : a habitual pattern of rule breaking and harming others Ex: Pathological Liar Absence of empathy towards others Deliberately Causing pain Lack of feelings of guilt for damaged caused

20 Understanding Mental Disorders  “Sometimes we find ourselves behaving irrationally, having trouble concentrating on the matter at hand, or experiencing feelings that do not seem appropriate... But these remain occasional and we are able to cope with them... But the lives of some people are dominated for long years by disordered thoughts, disturbed feelings, inappropriate behaviour, or some mix thereof... Problems become so severe that these individuals cannot cope with life and withdraw from routines or people closest to them, in turn they may look to professionals for assistance...”  Psychology: the science of Behaviour. The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders, p. 547, 2010.

21 What Causes Such Problems?  Recent studies have identified complex interactions between an individuals genotype, brain chemistry, and childhood environment in the etiology (that is, the causation) of psychology disorders.  i.e. A child who is constantly criticized by an overbearing, demanding parent may learn to be a) passive and non-responding or...?

22 Disorders Usually Diagnosed at Childhood  ADHD or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity)  Autistic Disorder (abnormal development of social interaction, limited interests or activity) Tend to be very intelligent. 

23 Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Psychological Disorders  Often referred to as neuroses, anxiety, somatoform, and dissociative psychological disorders are strategies of perception and behaviour that have gotten out of hand.  Lack of defense mechanisms in the brain that lead to pathological increases in anxiety.  Generally unhappy, however, UNLIKE, people with psychoses, they do not suffer from delusions or severely disordered thought processes.

24 Types of Anxiety Disorders  Panic Disorder  Anticipatory anxiety  OCD  For most people, anxiety is a typical reaction to circumstances that are perceived to be dangerous, for example, walking along glass above the ground on a mountain.. Which isn’t considered abnormal. However, when anxiety interferes with carrying out day-to-day activities, it is considered a type of psychological disorder. 

25 Types of Anxiety Disorders Cont’d.  Phobic Disorder – unrealistic, excessive fear of a specific class of stimuli that interferes with normal activities. The object of the anxiety is readily identifiable: It could be a snake, insect, closed spaces, etc.  Some phobias include.........

26 Anxiety Disorders Cont’d.  Acrophobia  Agoraphobia  Monophobia  Nyctophobia  Ochlopobia  Pathophobia  Taphophobia  Triskaidekaphobia  Heights  Open spaces  Being alone  Darkness  Crowds  Disease  Being buried alive  Turning thirteen

27 Somatoform Disorders  Soma meaning body  Somatization Disorder (often hypochondriasis) Manifesting physical symptoms for which there is no apparent biological cause, rare in men and affecting approx 1% of females  Conversion Disorder (from Brain to Body) - some sort of anxiety or an idea in your head affects the body through paralysis or numbness. An unresolved psychological conflict is converted into a physical symptom. i.e. Band of Brothers – Private Albert Blithe goes blind after the stress of seeing others killed

28 Personality Disorders  DSM-IV-TR classifies abnormalities in behaviour that impair social or occupational functioning as personality disorders.  There are several types, but ONE, that has most impact on society is anti-social personality disorder.  This disorder is most disturbing because they feel no need to change

29 Anti-Social Personality Disorder  Characterized by failure to conform to common standards of decency, repeated lying and stealing, failure to sustain long-lasting and loving relationships, low tolerance of boredom, and complete lack of guilt.

30 Anti-Social Personality Behaviour Continued  Kock (1889) coined people with this disorder a psychopath, also known as a sociopath.  i.e. Paul Bernardo – convicted of brutal rape and murder of two teenage girls. He is considered to be a classic example of anti- social personality disorder.

31 Substance-Related Disorders  Psychological disorders that are characterized by addiction to drugs or alcohol or by abuse of drugs or alcohol.  i.e. Lead to accidents, fetal alcohol syndrome, cerebral hemorrhaging

32 Schizophrenic Disorders  Serious psychological disorder characterized by thought disturbances, hallucinations, anxiety, emotional withdrawal, and delusions.  Onset is late teens to early 30’s.  Affects 1% of Canadians.  Literally means ‘split mind’ often misunderstood as split personality.  mind-movie-charles-isnt-there/ mind-movie-charles-isnt-there/

33 Schizophrenia Continued  Often affected by delusions – which are beliefs contrary to fact.  Delusions of grandeur – false belief one is famous, powerful, or important  Delusions of persecution – false belief others are plotting against one  vmTJOhA vmTJOhA

34 Schizophrenia Continued  Positive Symptoms and Negative Symptoms  Positive (outward-ish)– include thought disorder, hallucinations, and delusions.  Negative (inward-ish)– include absence of normal behaviour: flattened affect (emotion), poverty of speech, lack of initiative and persistence, and social withdrawal.

35 Schizophrenia Continued  Paranoid (John Nash) – suffers from delusions of grandeur/persecution.  Disorganized – disturbances of thought and silly affect.  Catatonic (Katateinein in Greek meaning ‘to stretch or draw tight’) – motor disturbances – extreme excitement and stupor for long periods.

36 Mood Disorders  Characterized by shifts in mood that affect normal perception, thought, and behaviour.  Characterized by deep, foreboding depression, or combination of depression and euphoria.  Bi-Polar I (a balance between manic ups and depressive downs)  Bi-Polar II (a manic ups are less frequent and less “up” and deeper depressive downs)  Major Depressive Disorder

37 Treatment of Psychological Disorders  Trephining – procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person (to release the demons, etc).  Philippe Pinel (France 1756) – pioneered treatment with respect and care  Old Tx – included ice tubs, made to bleed, shocked, lobotomy.  New Tx – included human therapies, programs implemented.

38 Tx of Disorders  Humanistic Approach – Carl Rodgers, in group with positive reinforcement has been successful, along with free association.  Psychodynamic – (Freud) – Id, Ego, Superego more understood in private discussing thoughts, dreams and fantasies.  Systematic Desensitization – snakes, pennies, etc.  Modelling (Bandura 1971) – by demonstrating a behaviour can teach behaviour i.e. He eliminated fear of snakes in 92% of people who participated.

39 Biological Tx  Drugs – common ones used are Prozac, Valium, Risperadal, Xanax  XE XE  Y8&feature=related Y8&feature=related  -M&feature=related -M&feature=related

40 Children and Diagnosis of Disorders  Play Therapy Activity

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