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Assessment. 1. What are Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAIs)? 1.Infections that are only caught in hospitals 2.Infections that are acquired as result.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment. 1. What are Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAIs)? 1.Infections that are only caught in hospitals 2.Infections that are acquired as result."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment

2 1. What are Healthcare Associated Infections (HCAIs)? 1.Infections that are only caught in hospitals 2.Infections that are acquired as result of healthcare interventions 3.When a healthcare employee comes into work with an infection

3 Correct answer 2 - Infections that are acquired as result of healthcare interventions  HCAI are infections that are acquired as result of healthcare interventions.  Infections develop as a direct result of any contact in a healthcare setting.  Numerous factors increase the risk of individuals acquiring an infection.  Poor standards of infection control practice increase the risk of occurrence.

4 2. Which of the following is one of the major potential causes of transmission of micro- organisms in the healthcare setting? 1.Clothing 2.Medical equipment 3.Patient case notes 4.Hand of a healthcare worker 5.Toilet facilities

5 Correct answer 4 - Hand of a healthcare worker Effective hand decontamination is one of the most effective measures in the prevention of cross infection

6 3. What makes a person vulnerable to infection? 1.Low immunity 2.Poor physical resistance 3.Very young 4.Very old 5.Malnourished 6.Underlying disease 7.All of the above

7 Correct answer 7 - All of the above Genes - minor or major genetic abnormalities can reduce immunity, leaving people especially vulnerable to infection Age - young children and older people are more vulnerable to infection and less able to fight it off Illness - chronic illness can reduce the efficiency of the immune system Medicines - many medicines suppress the immune system, such as the steroids used for asthma Surgery - the skin forms a major barrier to infection but cuts and wounds from trauma or surgery enable micro-organisms to enter the body Malnourishment - nutritional deficiencies can affect how well the immune system works. Patients are particularly vulnerable to infection because their immune systems tend to have been weakened by disease. Previous exposure - if your body's been exposed to the germ before (or one like it), your immune system may be able to get into action more rapidly.

8 4. What is meant by PPE? 1.Powered Portable Equipment 2.Personal Protective Equipment 3.Patient Personal Enquiry

9 Correct answer 2 - Personal Protective Equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is specialised equipment worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials. PPE prevents contact with an infectious agent or body fluid that may contain an infectious agent, by creating a barrier between the potential infectious material and the healthcare worker.

10 5. Why should wristwatches, rings and jewellery be removed before washing hands? 1.Because they cause injury to the patients 2.Because they discourage effective hand hygiene technique 3.Because the staff uniform policy says you are not allowed to wear them 4.All of the above

11 Correct answer 2 - Because they discourage effective hand hygiene technique Hand washing is hampered by the wearing of rings and they may interfere with thorough hand washing. Evidence would suggest that hand bacterial load is greater when rings are worn. Although there is limited information available in relation to wrist jewellery and its effect on hand hygiene, there is some evidence to indicate that watches and other jewellery harbour germs and interfere with effective hand washing. The Department of Health (2010) recommends that all staff involved in clinical activity should wear short-sleeved tops as cuffs at the wrist can become Heavily contaminated and are likely to come into contact with patients.

12 6. Who should challenge infection control non-compliance in a healthcare setting? 1.Area managers 2.Registered Nurses 3.Patients 4.Visitors 5.Everyone

13 Correct answer 5 - Everyone Infection Prevention & Control is everybody’s business. The Health and Social Care Act 2008; Code of Practice on the prevention and control of infections and related guidance states that organisations must ensure that all staff and those employed to provide care in all settings are fully involved in the process of preventing and controlling infection.

14 7. If you’ve been off work and unwell with diarrhoea and vomiting, you should not return to work until you are symptom free for: 1.24 hours 2.48 hours 3.72 hours 4.1 week

15 Correct answer 3 - 72 hours You should stay off work, University, etc, until at least 72 hours after the last episode of diarrhoea or vomiting to prevent the risk of cross infection (Health Protection Agency 2011).

16 8. Where can micro-organisms (germs) reside and multiply? 1.People 2.Equipment 3.Animals 4.Water 5.Food 6.Soil 7.All of the above

17 Correct answer 7 - All of the above Micro-organisms or bacteria are present in almost every environment, e.g. in the soil, in the air, in humans, animals and plants. They are found all over our bodies e.g. on our skin, in our mouth and in our gut. Most are harmless and are even beneficial. Microorganisms have been found that can live at temperatures above the boiling point and in those that would freeze your blood. They feed on everything from sugar and starch to sunlight, sulphur and iron. There is even a species of bacteria that can withstand blasts of radiation 1,000 times greater than those that would kill a human being.

18 9. How does the organisation know that staff are compliant with good hand decontamination technique? 1.Through infection control audit 2.Routine observation of practice 3.Monitoring concerns and complaints by patients and visitors 4.All of the above

19 Correct answer 4 - All of the above Organisations can monitor compliance with Hand Hygiene Policy through a number of methods. The most common is by infection control audit and routine observation of practice.

20 10. How do micro-organisms (germs) enter the body? 1.Through unbroken skin 2.Inhalation (breathing in) 3.Ingested (eaten) 4.Sexually transmitted 5.All of the above

21 Correct answer 5 - All of the above To cause disease, microorganisms must gain access into the body. The range of access routes for germs includes: Cuts make it easier to enter Eating contaminated food or water Close contact with an infected person (skin to skin, sexual contact) Contact with the faeces of an infected person Breathing in the exhaled droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes Indirectly, by touching contaminated surfaces – such as taps, toilet handles, toys and nappies. Micro-organisms are spread from one person to another by: Hands Coughs (droplets) Sneezes (droplets) Vomits Bites from infected animals or insects Exposure to infected bodily fluids through activities such as sexual intercourse or sharing hypodermic needles.

22 THANK YOU End of the assessment


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