Presentation on theme: "Presenter, Gerald Nestel, Bemidji State University Co writer, Darvin Miller, Ret., MSCTC Converting a Gasoline Hybrid to Plug-in (PHEV) Hybrid."— Presentation transcript:
Presenter, Gerald Nestel, Bemidji State University Co writer, Darvin Miller, Ret., MSCTC Converting a Gasoline Hybrid to Plug-in (PHEV) Hybrid
Toyota’s own 2010 experiments FCHV & PHEV Between 50 – 100 Toyota Prius hybrids will be tested in the USA in The test model battery will almost double the miles possible in the EV mode, from seven miles to 13 miles on electric only power.
2008 Prius owned by presenter, no conversion, standard, with aviation GPS
Basics of the Research Grant: “Where the rubber meets the road” From: Minnesota Department of Commerce, Office of Energy Security and 360º Manufacturing & Applied Engineering Center of Excellence, Bemidji State Univ. Purpose: To test and study PHEV conversion kits available, incorporate into curriculum, and compile and submit data for comparison Grant Leaders: Tony Hommes and Completed by Dr. Gerald Nestel, both from Bemidji State University were the project coordinators/Directors & Darvin Miller, Ret., Moorhead, (MN) Technical College, Technical data collector, organizer, & Co-writer
The Leadership Team The original grant $174,000 from the Minnesota Department of Commerce, Office of Energy Security. 360 o Center of Excellence (COE) organized a leadership team Tony Hommes, Mike Lehn [source for the conversion concept], Gerald Nestel and Darvin Miller with the advice and consent of the Department of Commerce designee.
The RFP followed this premise The “Where the Rubber Meets the Road” (the working title) project involves either the conversion of a Standard Gasoline/Electric Hybrid Vehicle into a Plug-In Hybrid Gasoline/Electric Vehicle (PHEV), or conduct automotive engineering projects that could attain similar fuel efficiency results (A 20 % increase or if possible over 70 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent) while relying on the current energy and fuel infrastructure.
Positive & lasting goal results sought Research the value of available conversion kits Are they capable of increasing fuel mileage Each of the six colleges gets a hybrid vehicle for educational purposes. The colleges will develop hybrid curriculum Share the curriculum with other Automotive Programs in the state, both secondary and postsecondary.
The RFP went to M N SCU Institutions Interested colleges and universities submitted their proposals and the following six colleges, along with their project leaders [principal investigators], were awarded grants, to a maximum of $29,000, to be used for funding of the research project.
Two Year Colleges and Researchers Northwest Technical College (NTC) Bemidji, Minnesota – Mark Johnson Dakota County Technical College (DCTC) Rosemount, Minnesota – Mark Hickman and Tim McCluskey Lake Superior College (LSC) Duluth, Minnesota – Roger Turner Hennepin Technical College (HTC) Brooklyn Park, Minnesota – Chris Hadfield and Mike Rudolph Minnesota State Community and Technical College (MSCTC) Moorhead, Minnesota – Dennis Miller St. Cloud Technical College (SCTC) St. Cloud, Minnesota – Chuck Rauschendorfer
Grant Required Project Outcomes To be considered for a grant each of the colleges needed to agree to the following outcomes: Conversion of an on-the-road vehicle to increase mileage by a minimum of 20% Projects are expected to include budget for new tires (required) and with a data collection every two weeks Converted projects are to be driven for a minimum of 2,000 miles
Grant Required Project Outcomes Continued After completion, the projects may be used as fleet cars, used by the department for training purposes & incorporation of related curriculum into coursework is desired. Conversion must be completed by December 2009, final report submitted by 31 January At the end of the project, curriculum and data collected, compiled by director and technical data person for 360 o for comparison and possible distribution.
Vehicles All six colleges decided to work with the Toyota Prius. Some of the colleges considered other vehicles but found the Prius to have the best choices for aftermarket conversion kits. Each College, working within their budget, chose their own vehicle and purchased it from the dealership of their choice. The vehicles used range in age from 2004 to The mileage range from 25,678 to 60,500 miles when purchased. The purchase prices ranged from $13,500 to $18,000.
Prius Transmission Sun Gear is turned by MG1 Ring Gear is turned by MG2 Carrier is turned by the Engine IC
MG1 highlighted: attached to sun gear, used for charging, starting IC motor, adds element for cruising speeds and ratio changes
MG2 Highlighted: Attached to Ring gear, used as main drive motor, and for regenerative braking
Engine is coupled to the Carrier, used for acceleration, charging (turning MG1), and heating
FAQ on the HV Battery Cost? volt is $ ( ) volt is $ ( ) Can it kill you?…………YES! Is it safe? Passes NHTSA crash tests Not fool proof but completely shielded and uses a separate ground Warrantee? 8 years/80,000 0r 10/100,000 at an extra cost
WHAT COLORED CONDUIT MEANS RED = low voltage, traditional 12 volts, less than 30 volts BLUE = intermediate-voltage wiring, 30 to less than 60 volts ORANGE = High Voltage, 60 volts or more
Conversion Kits Tested Plug in Supply - Petaluma California (NTC is using the 10.2 KW kit), ( HTC is using Lead Advanced Glass Mat batteries temporarily until 5KW Lithium Ion Phosphate can be provided by the company), (LSC is using their lead acid wet cell battery kit). Hymotion by A123 - (DCTC and MSCTC is using this company’s kit) Their kits were purchased from advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC), Raleigh, North Carolina. Plug in Conversions - Poway, California (SCTC used their kit).
Data Collection Data collection was a major item in this project. Similar methods were used by all six colleges so could be accurately compared. The Dyno-Scan by Auterra was selected as the tool to collect more information than just fuel mileage. This is an ALDL connected laptop scan tool and data recorder that was reasonably priced and allows large amounts of data to be recorded. It allows playback and analysis both in list and graph form. The collected data can also be printed.
Fuel Mileage Results Chuck Rauschendorfer, SCTC, wrote, “After the conversion, if I drove it in the conditions necessary to remain in the EV mode (electric vehicle mode), I got a projected 1400 MPG. … From my testing phase of this project, I came to realize that I could get mileage anywhere between 55 MPG and more than 250 MPG depending on how I would drive and the distance I would travel between charging the battery.”
1400 mpg avg. from conversion output
Limits of the Prius display is 99.9 mpg
Calculating Miles per Gallon+ This test was using a variety of drivers for a nonbiased situation. Strictly city driving and plugged in each night. Cost per miles driven ($ $5.33 =$16.31) Fuel and Electricity Cost = $16.31 to drive 366 so $16.31 divided by 366 miles = $.044 per mile This equates to 80 mpg plus the additional cost of $5.33 for electricity (verses approximately 42 mpg without Hymotion kit) Calculating: $5.33 will buy 2.22 gallons of fuel so; take 366 miles divided by 6.8 gallons ( =6.8) gives you 53.8mpg Dennis Miller, MSCTC,
Calculating Cost per Mile Total cost per mile driven including electricity ($ $5.33 = $16.31) is $16.31 divided by 366 = $.044 per mile $2.39 per gallon and $.081 per KW Note: Based on 42 mpg on $2.39 per gallon fuel this equates to $.057 cost per mile driven Therefore: For in town comparison the conversion will cut expenses around 22% Dennis Miller, MSCTC,
FUEL MILEAGE CHART 1
FUEL MILEAGE CHART 2
Recharging the Conversion Battery All of the conversions are rechargeable from a regular 15 amp 120 volt outlet with a standard extension cord. Times to fully recharge the battery packs range from of 4.5 hours to 6 hours. The high voltage charger is contained in the conversion unit and a receptacle is mounted in the rear bumper for easy access when plugging in the unit. Note: the St. Cloud system charges via the Toyota charging system when battery is below 20% charge most of the others appearently do not.
Perceived Conversions Positive Benefits 1 The conversion will lead to a significant decrease in fuel consumption, especially in shorter city driving. The consumer (driver) will see very little change in operating the vehicle, as there is no big learning curve needed after the conversion. Charging can be done from a standard 120 volt outlet with a standard extension cord. These kinds of research projects are part of helping advance technology. The project has been a very big learning experience for college instructors and students.
Perceived Conversions Positive Benefits 2 Knowledge gained and curriculum written will continue to contribute to student learning and help prepare automotive students for today’s job market, which includes hybrid vehicles. The project has added at least one modern hybrid vehicle into each of six college vehicle training fleets to be used for student learning. High voltage vehicle safety training has been improved both for automotive students as well as other groups, such as first responders through classes offered by these colleges
Perceived Conversions Negative Benefits The number one concern was the relatively high cost of the conversion units. However, fuel savings pay back may not be the only factor as “going green” may be another incentive to convert. The extra weight that the kit puts on the rear of the vehicle leads to handling characteristic changes, and wheel alignment changes are recommended to help correct this, or in some cases, rear springs need to be replaced. When the kit is mounted in the spare tire compartment it forces the choice of driving without a spare or finding another place to carry and secure the spare.
How Much CO2 Emission is Produced from Gasoline and Diesel 1 gallon of gasoline produces 19.4 lbs (8.8kg) of CO2 1 gallon of Diesel produces 22.3 lbs (10.1kg) of CO2
Laptop Computer Read-out
Conversion Unit Delivered
Prius in pre conversion appearance
Prius Components Removed
Storage area above spare tire
Spare tire location
The Toyota Prius Battery Location
Battery venting & 12 volt battery
Prius battery cover removed
Typical voltage of Prius battery
Disabling The High Voltage Power Supply Prius Similar to Many Others
Electrical Safety gloves are required ! Cotton liner Class “0” Insulated glove Leather outer glove
Order of instruction Turn vehicle off If you have smart key disable it by pushing switch under steering column Place key fob minimum of 16 feet away from vehicle
Disconnect negative battery cable
Locate High Voltage Switch. Use approved insulated Gloves! ( Class“0”) Inspect and test gloves. Lift switch upward first. Pull release lever away from switch and switch will roll out from connection. Store switch in your pocket for safety reasons.
Pull up on switch using finger ( Be sure to wear high voltage gloves)
Safety inter-lock open then pull out
Once High Voltage switch is removed Wait 5 minutes before any work is done This will give capacitors time to discharge Note batteries are still charged Batteries have been disabled due to connection is open between battery cells