Presentation on theme: "Child Development 3-12 Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 26, 2010 9:00-11:00."— Presentation transcript:
Child Development 3-12 Part 4: Influences, Risks, Resilience, and Resources Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Core In-Service February 26, :00-11:00 a.m. Debbie Richardson, Ph.D., Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science - Oklahoma State University
In-Service Objectives 3 Extension Educators will be able to: Describe risk and protective factors, developmental concerns, and other issues pertinent to children between the ages of 3 to 12 years, and Understand when to be concerned regarding risks or delays to child development, and resource and referral sources.
Individual Risk and Resilience during Childhood Dr. Michael Criss – Assistant Professor Department of HDFS Oklahoma State University 4
Mike Criss, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, HDFS Research areas: Parenting Children’s relationships with parents, siblings, and peers Developmental change in parenting and children’s interpersonal relationships Antecedents of antisocial behavior Child resilience Teaches: Lifespan Human Development Parenting Adolescent Development in Family Contexts Developmental Contexts of Normative Behavior Problems Advanced Research Methods in HDFS 5
What are Risk Factors? Risk factor: a variable that increases the probability that an individual will have negative outcomes. What do I mean by “increases the probability”? Types of “negative child outcomes”: 1.aggression/delinquency 2.depression/anxiety 3.alcohol/drug use 4.risky sexual behavior 5.poor emotion regulation 6.poor social skills and peer relationships 6
What are Risk Factors? Types of risk factors: 1.biological/genetic factors 2.parent and child personality/temperament 3.parental psychopathology 4.negative parenting 5.negative family relationships 6.neighborhood factors 7.demographic variables Note: Risk factors are often correlated with each other. 7
What are Protective Factors? Protective factor: a variable which serves as a buffer or decreases the influence of a risk factor on individual outcomes. Resilience: when an individual has positive outcomes despite the presence of a risk factor or risk factors. Types of protective factors: 1.child characteristics 2.positive parenting 3.positive family relationships 4.positive peer relationships 5.schools 8
Final Remarks Risk and protective factors may differ in: 1.males and females 2.younger and older kids 3.different cultural and ethnic groups 9
Ecological Systems Bronfenbrenner 10 Developmental processes do not occur in a vacuum but are influenced by factors in the immediate environment, society and culture as a whole. Individuals are significantly affected by interactions among a number of overlapping systems in which they live. Family, community, and societal factors must be optimal for children to learn and be healthy.
Social Context of Human Development Bronfenbrenner 11 Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory
Poverty/Low SES 12 Greater risk for range of poor outcomes: Development and cognition Less stimulating home environment Elevated blood lead levels Stress and emotional distress Health care and illness Chronic poverty is not a unitary variable, but a combination of pervasive stressful conditions.
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) 13 The largest study ever done to examine the health and social effects of these childhood experiences throughout the lifespan (17,421 participants) What are Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)? Growing up with… Childhood abuse and neglect Domestic violence Substance abuse or mental illness in the home Parental discord Crime
ACEs Compelling Evidence 14 Surprisingly common Long-term, damaging consequences - still have profound effect 50 years later Happen even in “the best of families” Transformed from psychosocial experience into organic disease, social malfunction, and mental illness A main determinant of the health and social well-being of the nation - determine the likelihood of the 10 most common causes of death in the U.S.
ACEs 15 Childhood experiences profoundly and causally shape adult life Produce neurodevelopmental and emotional damage, and impair social and school performance Rarely occur in isolation…they come in groups Higher # of ACEs → greater risk of behavior problems Examples: individual with ACE score of 4, is 12 x more likely to attempt suicide than those with none higher ACE score, the greater the likelihood of smoking, which then may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
ACE Findings – Adverse Effects 16 Alcoholism & Alcohol Abuse Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Depression Fetal Death Illicit Drug Use Ischemic Heart Disease Health-related Quality of Life Liver Disease Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Multiple Sexual Partners Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Suicide Attempts Unintended Pregnancies
ACE Pyramid 17
Jennifer Jones, Ph.D. Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University Developmental Disabilities 18
Jennifer Jones, Ph.D. 19 Visiting Assistant Professor Human Development & Family Science Research areas: Self-concept of Adolescents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Parenting Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Teaches: Non-Normative Development Infant and Child Development
20 Children’s Mental Health
Referral Sources 21 Health Dept. – Child Guidance Mental Health Centers Youth & Family Services School counselors/psychologists Pediatricians Children’s Hospitals OASIS