Presentation on theme: "The Relationship of Adverse Childhood"— Presentation transcript:
1The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to Adult Health StatusA collaborative effort of Kaiser Permanente and The Centers for Disease ControlVincent J. Felitti, M.D.Robert F. Anda, M.D.1
2The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study The largest study of its kind ever done to examine the health and social effects of adverse childhood experiences over the lifespan (18,000 participants)2
3What do we mean by Adverse Childhood Experiences? Experiences that represent medical and social problems of national importance.- childhood abuse and neglect- growing up with domestic violence, substance abuse or mental illness in the home, parental loss, or crime2
4ACE Study Design Survey Wave 1 -- complete 71% response (9,508/13,454) MortalityNational Death IndexMorbidityHospital DischargeOutpatient VisitsEmergency Room VisitsPharmacy UtilizationPresentvs.All medical evaluationsabstracted&Health StatusSurvey Wave IIn=15,000This slide presents the ACE study design. It is formatted into three sections.The first section presents information about the surveys. Survey Wave 1 is complete. Out of a population of 15,000 people, 13,454 were contacted and 9,508 responded. This is a 71 percent response rate. All medical evaluations were abstracted.Survey Wave 2 also has a sample size of 15,000. Medical evaluations are being abstracted.The second section states the study is examining the present health status of the participants.The third section indicates the study further examines mortality with National Death Index data as well as morbidity from data on hospital discharge, outpatient visits, emergency room visits, and pharmacy utilization.All medical evaluationsabstracted
5The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study Summary of Findings:Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are very commonACEs are strong predictors of later health risks and diseaseThis combination makes ACEs the leading determinant of the health and social well-being of our nation5
6Categories of Adverse Childhood Experiences CategoryPrevalence (%)Abuse, by CategoryPsychological (by parents) %Physical (by parents) %Sexual (anyone) %Household Dysfunction, by CategorySubstance Abuse %Mental Illness %Mother Treated Violently %Imprisoned Household Member %
7Adverse Childhood Experiences Score Number of categories adverse childhood experiences are summed …ACE score Prevalence0 48%1 25%2 13%3 7%4 or more 7%More than half have at least one ACEIf one ACE is present, the ACE Score is likely to range from 2.4 to 47
8Adverse Childhood Experiences vs. Current Smoking %This slide is a bar chart representing adverse childhood experiences versus current smoking.ACE Score Percentage1 62 84 to6 or more 16
9Smoking to Self-Medicate This slide is titled smoking to self-medicate and contains a picture of a middle-aged man.
10ACE Score vs. Smoking and COPD This slide has a bar graph titled ACE score versus smoking and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).ACE Score Regular smoking by age 14 COPD(percent with problem) (percent with problem)4 or more
11Molestation in Childhood This slide is titled molestation in childhood and has a picture of a heavy-set, middle-aged woman.
12Childhood Experiences vs. Adult Alcoholism 4+32This slide is a bar chart titled child experiences versus adult alcoholism.ACE score Percent alcoholic4 or more1
13Some say depression is genetic Some say depression is genetic. Some say depression is due to a chemical imbalance.
14Might depression be a normal response to abnormal life experiences?
15Childhood Experiences Underlie Chronic Depression This slide contains a bar graph titled childhood experiences underlie chronic depression with statistics on the percentage of women and men with a lifetime history of depression.ACE Score Percentage of Women Percentage of MenGreater than or equal to
16Childhood Experiences Underlie Suicide 4+3This slide contains a bar graph titled childhood experiences underlie suicide and presents ACE scores and the percentage of people attempting suicide.ACE Score Percent attempting suicide4 or more21
17Estimates of the Population Attributable Risk Estimates of the Population Attributable Risk* of ACEs for Selected Outcomes in Women*That portion of a condition attributable to specific risk factors
18Adverse Childhood Experiences vs. Likelihood of > 50 Sexual Partners This slide is a bar graph titled adverse childhood experiences versus likelihood of more than 50 sexual partners.ACE Score Adjusted Odds Ratio0 14 or more 3.2
19Adverse Childhood Experiences vs. History of STD This slide contains a bar graph titled adverse childhood experiences versus history of STD (sexually transmitted disease).ACE Score Adjusted Odds Ratio0 14 or more 2.5
20Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Risk of: *Adjusted Odds Ratio
21Childhood Experiences Underlie Rape 4+32This slide is a bar chart titled childhood experiences underlie rape and presents the ACE scores and percentage of people reporting rape.ACE Score Percent reporting rape4 or more1
22ACE Score and Hallucinations AbusedAlcoholor DrugsEver Hallucinated* (%)This slide is a bar graph titled ACE score and hallucinations. It presents the ACE scores of people who had abused alcohol or drugs and people who had not and the percent of each who had ever hallucinated. (Adjusted for age, sex, race, and education.)ACE Score Percentage of not ever hallucinated Percentage of ever hallucinatedGreater than or equal toACE Score*Adjusted for age, sex, race, and education.
23Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Risk of: *Adjusted Odds Ratio
24Estimates of the Population Attributable Risk Estimates of the Population Attributable Risk* of ACEs for Selected Outcomes in Women*That portion of a condition attributable to specific risk factors
25The traditional concept: “Addiction is due to the characteristics intrinsic in the molecular structure of some substance.”
26We find that:“Addiction highly correlates with characteristics intrinsic to that individual’s childhood experiences.”
27ACE Score vs. Intravenous Drug Use This slide is a bar graph titled ACE score versus intravenous drug use. It presents ACE scores and the percent of people who had injected drugs. The population size is 8,022 and the confidence level is less than .001.ACE Score Percent that have injected drugs4 or more 3.4N = 8, p<0.001
28Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Risk of: *Adjusted Odds Ratio
29Estimates of the Population Attributable Risk Estimates of the Population Attributable Risk* of ACEs for Selected Outcomes in Women*That portion of a condition attributable to specific risk factors
30Adverse Childhood Experiences determine the likelihood of the ten most common causes of death in the United States.Top 10 Risk Factors: smoking, severe obesity, physical inactivity,depression, suicide attempt, alcoholism, illicit drug use, injected drug use,50+ sexual partners, history of STD (sexually transmitted disease).
31With an ACE Score of 0, the majority of adults have few, if any, risk factors for these diseases.
32However, with an ACE Score of 4 or more, the majority of adults have multiple risk factors for these diseases or the diseases themselves.
33Effect of ACEs on Mortality Age GroupThis slide is a bar graph titled effect of ACEs on mortality and presents statistics for the age groups of 19 to 34, 35 to 49, 50 to 64, and 65 and older.ACE Score Percent aged 19 to 34 Percent aged 35 to 49 Percent aged 50 to 64 Percent aged 65 and older
34Many chronic diseases in adults are determined decades earlier, in childhood.
35Their risk factors are also reliable markers for antecedent problems Their risk factors are also reliable markers for antecedent problems. “In my end is my beginning.” T.S. Eliot - Quartets
36Dismissing them as “bad habits” or “self-destructive behavior” totally misses their function.
37ACE Score vs. Serious Job Problems This slide is a bar graph titled ACE score versus serious job problems.ACE Score Percent with Job Problems4 or more
38Much of what causes time to be lost from work is actually predetermined decades earlier by the adverse experiences of childhood.
39Premature mortality and excess morbidity are typically the result of a small number of common diseases.ACE = Parental Loss
40Evidence from ACE Study Suggests: These chronic diseases in adults are determined decades earlier, by the experiences of childhood.Affective Response
41Evidence from ACE Study Suggests: Risk factors for these Evidence from ACE Study Suggests: Risk factors for these diseases are initiated during childhood or adolescence . . .Seeking to Cope
42Evidence from ACE Study Suggests: . . . and continue into adult life. Outcome: social and biomedical damage
43Another possible outcome. This slide has a drawn picture of a person by a Christmas tree who has committed suicide by hanging.Another possible outcome.
44The risk factors underlying these adult diseases are effective coping devices.
45Why is this so difficult to treat later? This slide is a sketch with a caption of seeing the pain – America’s physicians confront family violence. It consists of a mother, father, and child sitting around a dinner table. The mother and father appear to be arguing.Why is this so difficult to treat later?
46This slide shows positron emission tomography (PET) scan graphics of the temporal lobes in a healthy and abused brain.Healthy brain: this PET scan of the brain of a normal child shows regions of high (shown in red) and low (shown in blue and black) activity. At birth, only primitive structures such as the brain stem (in the center of the brain graphic) are fully functional; in regions like the temporal lobes (at the top of the graphic), early childhood experiences wire the circuits.Abused brain: this PET scan of the brain of a Romanian orphan, who was institutionalized shortly after birth, shows the effect of extreme deprivation in infancy. The temporal lobes (at the top of the graphic), which regulate emotions and receive input from the senses, are nearly quiescent. Such children suffer emotional and cognitive problems.
47What is conventionally viewed as a problem is actually a solution to an unrecognized prior adversity.
48Evidence from ACE Study Suggests: Adverse childhood experiences are the most basic cause of health risk behaviors, morbidity, disability, mortality, and healthcare costs.
49The Influence of Adverse Childhood Experiences Throughout Life EarlyEarlyDeathDeathDeathBirthDisease, DisabilityAdoption ofHealth-risk BehaviorsSocial, Emotional, &Cognitive ImpairmentThis slide is titled the influence of adverse childhood experiences throughout life and contains a pyramid of five levels from birth, at the bottom of the pyramid, to death, at the top of the pyramid.The first level at the base of the pyramid is labeled adverse childhood experiences.The next level up is labeled social, emotional, and cognitive impairment.The next level up is labeled adoption of health-risk behaviors.The next level up is labeled disease, disability.The last level, at the tip of the pyramid, is labeled early death.Adverse Childhood ExperiencesAdverse Childhood ExperiencesThe Influence of Adverse Childhood Experiences Throughout Life
50“The truth about childhood is stored up in our bodies and lives in the depths of our souls. Our intellect can be deceived, our feelings can be numbed and manipulated, our perceptions shamed and confused, our bodies tricked with medication, but our soul never forgets. And because we are one, one whole soul in one body, someday our body will present its bill.”Alice Miller
51Acknowledgment that the problem exists. Bridging the ChasmChildhealthandwell-being as itstands today.Childhealthandwell-beingas itcould be.Acknowledgment that the problem exists.Recognition of cases in medical practice.This slide is titled bridging the chasm. The left side of the slide represents child health and well-bring as it stands today. The middle, or bridging the chasm, represents acknowledgment that the problem exists and recognition of cases in medical practice. The right side represents child health and well-being as it could be.1616
52What Can We Do Now?Routinely seek history of adverse childhood experiences from all patientsAcknowledge their reality by asking, “How has this affected you later in life?”Arrange a return appointment to discuss possibilities for helping them.