Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Roughly 5 liters per person  Blood is heavier than water (components are made primarily of water with other biochemicals added in!)  Varies with:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Roughly 5 liters per person  Blood is heavier than water (components are made primarily of water with other biochemicals added in!)  Varies with:"— Presentation transcript:

1

2  Roughly 5 liters per person  Blood is heavier than water (components are made primarily of water with other biochemicals added in!)  Varies with: ◦ Body size ◦ Changes in fluid and electrolytes/salt ◦ Amount of adipose fat tissue ◦ Gender (males have more than females!)

3

4  Def: % of formed elements in blood ◦ Mostly red blood cells (RBCs) ◦ WBCs and platelets– less than 1%  Normal values ◦ In males- mid to high 40’s ◦ In females- low 40’s  When centrifuged/spun: ◦ White blood cells (WBCs) and platelets form a thin very thin layer on top – called “buffy coat” – between plasma and RBCs

5

6  Hematopoiesis ◦ Def: process by which immature stem cells become specialized ◦ Become either RBC, WBC or platelets ◦ Location: Occurs in red bone marrow

7  Also called erythrocytes  Biconcave shape ◦ Increases surface area/volume ratio  Mature cells lack nuclei  1/3 filled with hemoglobin ◦ Oxygen carrying polypeptide molecule

8  Composed of four chains (polypeptides)  Also has iron or “heme” group attached  Called oxyhemoglobin when oxygen is bound to it (bright red color)  Called deoxyhemoglobin when oxygen is released (darker color)

9  The higher the # of RBCs = higher oxygen carrying capacity ◦ Change in # affects health – greatly! ◦ Used, in part, to help diagnose and evaluate diseases  Typical range ◦ Males: 4,600,000 – 6,200,000 cells per mm 3 ◦ Females: 4,200,000 – 5,400,000 cells per mm 3

10  Hematopoiesis (red blood cell formation) ◦ Before Birth: yolk sac, liver, and spleen ◦ After Birth: red marrow ◦ Controlled very precisely by homeostatic mechanisms  Production influenced by: ◦ Vitamin B 12 ◦ Folic acid ◦ iron

11  Circulate for 120 days  Old or damaged RBC’s are destroyed (removed from blood circulation daily) ◦ Phagocytized by macrophages in liver or spleen ◦ Hemoglobin is broken into heme and globin ◦ Heme is broken into iron and biliverdin (greenish pigment) ◦ Biliverdin is converted to bilirubin ◦ Iron is stored in liver or brought to marrow ◦ Biliverdin and bilirubin are secreted in bile

12

13  Also called leukocytes  Production stimulated by interleukins and colony-stimulating factors  Two groups: ◦ 1) Granulocytes - have granular cytoplasm  Neutrophils  Eosinophils  Basophils ◦ 2) Agranulocytes - no cytoplasmic granules  Monocytes  Lymphocytes WBC animation WBC animation

14

15  Granulocyte  Average 54-62% of leukocytes  Fine cytoplasmic granules that are light purple in neutral stain  Nucleus: 2-5 lobes  Lifespan: about 12 hours  Function: phagocytize bacteria and other particlesphagocytize bacteria

16  Granulocyte  Average 1-3% of leukocytes  Coarse cytoplasmic granules that are deep red in acid stain  Nucleus: 2 lobes  Lifespan: about 12 hours  Function: destroy certain parasites and control inflammation or allergic reactions

17  Granulocyte  Average ‹1 % of leukocytes  Relatively few, irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules that are deep blue in basic stain  Nucleus: 2 lobes  Lifespan: about 12 hours  Function: release heparin and histamine

18  Agranulocyte  Average 3-9 % of leukocytes  Nucleus: Varied shape  Lifespan: several weeks or months  Function: phagocytize materials

19  Agranulocyte  Average % of leukocytes  Nucleus: Large and round  Lifespan: may live for years  Function: function in immune response

20  Normal range: 5,000-10,000 mm 3  Differential White Blood Cell Count ◦ Distinguish how many of each type ◦ Can be important for diagnosing some disorders/problems ◦ Excessive:  If your WBC count exceeds 10,000, this is leukocytosis (infection)  Ex: Appendicitis ◦ Deficiency:  If you WBC count is below 5,000, this is leukopenia (low count)  Ex: typhoid fever, influenza, measles, mumps, chickenpox, AIDS, polio WBC animation WBC animation

21  White blood cells are also called leukocytes ◦ UP!!! ◦ UP!!!  When discussing hematocrit, WBCs make up the majority of your blood. ◦ DOWN!!!   The more WBCs you have, the better you’re probably feeling. ◦ DOWN!   Lymphocytes function to assist your immune system ◦ UP!!! ◦ UP!!!

22  Neutrophils are granulocytes. ◦ YES!!! ◦ YES!!!  Basophils phagocytize materials. ◦ NO!!!   Monocytes make up the majority of your WBCs. ◦ NO!!!   Have an excessive WBC count can mean an infection like appendicitis. ◦ YES!!! ◦ YES!!!

23  Also celled thrombocytes  Made from megokaryocyte ◦ Large cells in red bone marrow  Production stimulated by thrombopoietin (hormone)  Lack nucleus  ½ the size of RBC  Lifespan: about 10 days  Function: form blood clots, help close breaks in damaged blood vessels  Normal range: 130, ,000

24

25  91-2% water  Remainder is mixture of biochemicals ◦ Proteins, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes  Function: ◦ Transporting nutrients, gases and vitamins ◦ Regulate fluid and electrolyte balance ◦ Maintain proper pH

26  Main component of dissolved substances  Remain in plasma (not metabolized/broken down)  Types: ◦ 1) Albumin (60%)  Help establish colloid osmotic pressure  Transports lipids and steroid hormones ◦ 2) Globulins (36%)  Transport of ions, lipids and fat-soluble vitamins and some antibodies ◦ 3) Fibrinogen (4%)  Function in blood coagulation and clotting

27  Most important blood gases: ◦ Oxygen ◦ Carbon dioxide  Plasma nutrients: ◦ Materials absorbed from digestive tract  Ex: Amino acids, simple sugars, nucleotides, lipids ◦ Fats (triglycerides) ◦ Phospholipids ◦ Cholesterol ◦ Lipoproteins  When Fats, phospholipids, cholesterol combine with proteins  Large size

28  Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances ◦ Amino acids ◦ Urea and uric acid  Electrolytes ◦ Various ions (K+, Ca+, Cl-)

29

30  Def: the stoppage of bleeding  Important when blood vessels are damaged (following injury)  Vasospasm ◦ Contraction of blood vessel walls in response to small break  Platelet plug ◦ Platelets adhere to damage and to each other to create a plug; may release serotonin to cause vasoconstriction  If previous two are unsuccessful, blood clot may form (through coagulation)

31  Def: formation of blood clot  Damaged tissue releases tissue thromboplastin (hormone)  After series of rxns, prothrombin activator is created  Prothrombin activator (with Calcium) converts prothrombin to thrombin  Thrombin cuts fibrinogen into fibrin fibers that form a meshwork over the damage

32

33  Hemophilia ◦ Uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhaging) following injury, frequent nosebleeds, blood in urine ◦ Inherited clotting disorder ◦ Carried on X chromosome (recessive)  Von Willebrand Disease ◦ Tendency to bleed and bruise easily ◦ Inherited clotting disorder ◦ Far less severe than hemophilia

34

35  Leukemia Leukemia ◦ Symptoms:  Fatigue, frequent colds/fevers, chills, sweats, bruising, bone pain ◦ Diagnosing:  Few RBCs and platelets, TOO many WBCs (notice the prefix “leuk” from leukocytes) ◦ Cause:  Red bone marrow producing too many granulocytes cancer cells are not controlled – spread ◦ Treatment:  Stem cell transplants, chemotherapy drugs

36 Normal smear Leukemia smear

37  Types: A, B, AB, O  Typing is based on antigens found on RBC’s  Two most important groups: ◦ 1) ABO group ◦ 2) Rh group  + and – of each type  Ex: A-, B-, AB-, O-; A+, B+, AB+, O+

38  Blood type is codominant (A and B are BOTH equally dominant)  Possible blood type genotypes (genetic code) ◦ A (I A I A or I A i) ◦ B (I B I B or I B i) ◦ AB (I A I B ) ◦ O (ii)

39

40  Mixing blood types can cause agglutination

41  Possible Rh Blood Types: ◦ + (++ or +-) ◦ - (--)

42  Condition cause by Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus

43  I have O- blood. What type can I receive? ◦ O- ONLY  I have AB+ blood. What type can I receive? ◦ ANY!!!  I have B- blood. Who can take my blood? ◦ B+ or B-; AB+ or AB-


Download ppt " Roughly 5 liters per person  Blood is heavier than water (components are made primarily of water with other biochemicals added in!)  Varies with:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google