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Common belief was disease & illness were caused by evil spirits and demons Treatment was directed toward eliminating evil spirits Religion plays an important.

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Presentation on theme: "Common belief was disease & illness were caused by evil spirits and demons Treatment was directed toward eliminating evil spirits Religion plays an important."— Presentation transcript:


2 Common belief was disease & illness were caused by evil spirits and demons Treatment was directed toward eliminating evil spirits Religion plays an important role in health care Common belief was illness & disease were a punishment from the gods

3 4000 BC – 3000 BC Primitive Times Believed illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits & demons Tribal witch doctors treated illness with ceremonies to drive out evil spirits Herbs & plants were used as medicines Trepanation, or boring a hole into the skull, was used to treat insanity, epilepsy, & headache Average life span – 20 years

4 3000 BC – 300 BC Ancient Egyptians Earliest to maintain health records Physicians were priests Imhotep may have been the first physician Embalming led to increased understanding of anatomy & disease Gauze used to wrap bodies Antiseptics kept bodies from decaying Bloodletting or leeches were used Used magic & medicinal plants to treat disease Average life span was 20 – 30 years

5 1700 BC – AD 220 Ancient Chinese Most religions did not allow dissection Believed in the need to treat the whole body by curing the spirit & nourishing the body Used acupuncture to relieve pain & congestion Began to search for medical reasons for illness Average life span was 20 – 30 years

6 1200 BC – 200 BC Ancient Greeks Began modern medical science by observing the human body and the effects of disease Hippocrates is called the Father of Medicine Aristotle is called the founder of comparative anatomy Believed illness is a result of natural causes Used therapies such as massage, art therapy, & herbal treatment – which are still used today Stressed diet and cleanliness as ways to prevent disease Average life span was 25 – 35 years

7 Ancient Greeks Hippocrates - Father of Medicine no dissection, only observations took careful notes of signs/symptoms of diseases disease was not caused by supernatural forces wrote standards of ethics which is the basis for today’s medical ethics

8 Ancient Greeks Aesculapius staff and serpent symbol of medicine temples built in his honor became the first true clinics and hospitals

9 753 BC – AD 410 Ancient Romans First to organize medical care by caring for soldiers Early hospitals developed when physicians cared for ill people in their homes Later hospitals were religious & charitable institutions Began public health & sanitation systems Galen, a physician, established many medical beliefs Diet, exercise, and medications were used to treat disease Average life span was 25 – 35 years

10 After the fall of the Roman empire, the study of medicine stopped The Middle Ages brought renewed interest in the medical practices of the Greeks and Romans Knowledge was translated and recorded in handwritten books Medicine practiced only in convents & monasteries Life & Death – in God’s hands

11 AD 400 – AD 800 Dark Ages Emphasis was placed on saving the soul, and the study of medicine was prohibited Prayer & divine intervention were used to treat illness & disease Monks & priests provided custodial care for sick people Medications were mainly herbal mixtures Average life span was 20 – 30 years

12 AD 800 – AD 1400 Middle Ages Medical Universities were created Renewed interest in medical practice of Greeks & Romans A pandemic of the bubonic plague (black death) killed ¾ of the population of Europe & Asia Major diseases were smallpox, diptheria, tuberculosis, typhoid, the plague, and malaria Arabs began requiring physicians pass exams and obtain licenses Realization – diseases are contagious Average life span 20 – 35 years

13 This period is often called the “rebirth of the science of medicine” Major sources of new information was a result of accepting dissection Artists were able to draw the body accurately The printing press resulted in the publication of medical books

14 AD 1350 – AD 1650 Renaissance Rebirth of the science of medicine Dissection of the body allows a better understanding of anatomy & physiology Michelangelo & Leonardo da Vinci draw the body Development of the printing press allows knowledge to be spread to others First anatomy book published Michael Servetus describes the circulatory system in the lungs Roger Bacon promotes chemical remedies to treat disease Average life span was 30 – 40 years

15 Physicians gained an increased knowledge of the human body Major development was the microscope The start of drugstores or pharmacies

16 16 th & 17 th Centuries Causes of disease – still not known; many people died from infections & puerperal (childbirth) fever Ambroise Pare, French surgeon, known as the Father of Modern Surgery Gabriel Fallopius – identifies the fallopian tube William Harvey described the circulation of blood to and from the heart in 1628 Apothecaries (early pharmacists) made, prescribed, and sold medications Average life span was 35 – 45 years

17 18 th Century Gabriel Fahrenheit creates the first mercury thermometer in 1714 Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals & found colds can be passed from person to person John Hunter, an English surgeon, establishes scientific surgical procedures & introduces tube feeding Average life span was 40 – 50 years

18 Also known as the Industrial Revolution Major progress in medical science Formal training for nurses began Sanitary nursing care units began Infection control methods developed

19 19 th Century First successful blood transfusion on humans Handwashing was encouraged after autopsies & before childbirth – idea was resisted by hospital/medical personnel Dr. William Morton, an American dentist, began using ether as an anesthetic in 1846 Dr. James Simpson began using chloroform as an anesthetic in 1847 Paul Ehrlich develops methods of detecting & differentiating between various diseases Dimitri Ivanofski discovers viruses in 1892 Average life span was years

20 Shows the most rapid growth in health care Health care plans help pay costs of care Standards are created to make sure every individual has access to quality health care Computer technology allows medicine to progress faster than ever

21  Health insurance plans & social reforms developed in the 1920s  Sigmund Freud forms the basis for psychology & psychiatry  Dr. George Papanicolaou develops the Pap test  Average life span was 60 – 70 years 20 th Century

22 Anton van Leeuwenhoek invents the microscope Edward Jenner develops a smallpox vaccination Rene Laennec invents the stethoscope 1818 – James Blundel performs the first successful blood transfusion in humans 1842 – Crawford Long develops ether anesthesia Elizabeth Blackwell, first female physician in US 1863 – International Red Cross established 1865 – Sir Joseph Lister uses asepsis in surgery 1869 – Gregor Mendel - laws of heredity

23 Florence Nightingale - founder of modern nursing Elizabeth Garrett Anderson – first female physician in Britain 1881-Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross 1885-Louis Pasteur proves microorganisms cause disease; pasteurizes milk to kill bacteria; creates rabies vaccine 1893 – Aspirin is developed 1895 – Wilhelm Roentgen discovers X-rays

24 1901 – Blood groups discovered Marie Curie isolates radium Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin 1937 – Smoking is linked to cancer First kidney dialysis machine developed DNA discovered Jonas Salk develops the polio vaccine First successful kidney transplant

25  Birth control pills approved by the FDA Thomas Starzl performs first liver transplant James Hardy performs first lung transplant Christian Barnard performs first successful heart transplant CAT scans developed New Jersey Supreme Court rules parents have the right to remove life support

26 First ‘test tube baby’ born in England 1981 – AIDS identified as a disease Dr. William DeVries implants the first artificial heart HIV virus causing AIDS identified 1984 – First baby conceived from frozen embryo 1987 – Dr. Benjamin Carson separates conjoined twins 1994 – Breast cancer gene identified 1997 – Dolly, the sheep was cloned

27 Credits North Carolina Health Science Curriculum South Carolina Health Science Curriculum Health Science Career Exploration by Louise Simmers

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