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© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 1 Chapter 08 Human Development

2 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 2 Chapter Preview Exploring Human Development Physical Development Cognitive Development Socioemotional Development Gender Development Moral Development Death, Dying, and Grieving Active Development as a Lifelong Process

3 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 3 Domains of Development Physical processes Involve changes in an individual’s biological nature Cognitive processes Involve changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language Socioemotional processes Involve changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality

4 Development Prenatal Infancy Preschool/Early Childhood School Age/Middle Childhood Adolescence Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood Conception – Birth 0 to 2 2 to 5/6 6 to to to to and older Pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities

5 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 5 Prenatal Physical Development Three Stages of Development Germinal period (0-2 Weeks) Cell divisions, Attachment to uterine wall Embryonic period (3 Weeks-8 Weeks) Intensified cell differentiation Development of organs Fetal period (2 Months to Birth) Development includes movement, organ functioning, weight gain

6 Female Reproductive Organs

7

8 Fertilization Egg is viable for 24 hours Sperm is viable for 3 to 5 days “Unsafe period” is from day 9 to 15 if ovulation occurs on day 14 day 7 to 17 could be unsafe

9 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 9 Prenatal Physical Development Threats to fetus Teratogen Agent that causes birth defect Chemical substances: Nicotine, heroin, alcohol Certain illnesses: Rubella, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV Preterm infant Risk for developmental difficulties

10 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 10 Physical Development Reflexes Newborns come with genetically wired reflexes Sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking, yawning Motor and perceptual skills Depend on each other Environmental experiences play a role in motor development

11 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 11 Physical Development Brain Infancy Branching of dendrites Myelination Childhood Increase in synaptic connections Pruning of unused neural connections Rapid growth in frontal lobe areas

12 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 12 Dendritic Spreading

13 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 13 Synaptic Density

14 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 14 Physical Development in Adolescence Adolescence Developmental period spanning the transition from childhood to adulthood Begins around 10 to 12 years of age and ends at 18 to 21 years of age Characterized by dramatic physical changes Puberty Period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in early adolescence

15 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 15 Pubertal Growth Spurt

16 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 16 Physical Development in Adolescence Adolescent brain Changes focus on Earlier development of the amygdala Involves emotion Later development of the prefrontal cortex Concerned with reasoning and decision making

17 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 17 Developmental Changes…Brain

18 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 18 Physical Development in Adulthood Physical changes in early adulthood Peak physical development during 20s Physical changes in middle and late adulthood Many physical changes in the 40s or 50s, involve changes in appearance

19 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 19 Biological Theories of Aging Cellular-clock theory View that cells can divide a maximum of about 100 times As we age, our cells become less capable of dividing Free-radical theory People age because unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals are produced inside their cells Damage done by free radicals may lead to a range of disorders

20 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 20 Biological Theories of Aging Hormonal stress theory Aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease

21 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 21 Aging and the Brain Adults can grow new brain cells throughout life Brain has remarkable repair capability even in late childhood

22 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 22 Cognitive Development Refers to how thought, intelligence, and language processes change as people mature Cognition The operation of thinking and also to our cognitive skills and abilities

23 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 23 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Children think different at different ages Human beings use schemas to make sense of their experience Two processes responsible for how people use and adapt their schemas Assimilation Occurs when individuals incorporate new information into existing schemes Accommodation Occurs when individuals adjust their schemas to new information

24 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 24 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor stage Lasts from birth to about 2 years of age Infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experience Development of object permanence

25 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 25 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Preoperational stage Lasts from approximately 2 to 7 years of age Beginning of limited symbolic thinking Inability to perform operations, or reversible mental representations Egocentric and intuitive thinking

26 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 26 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Concrete operational stage Lasts from 7 to 11 years of age Involves using operations Involves replacing intuitive reasoning

27 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 27 Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Formal operational stage Last from 11 to 15 years of age Continues through the adult years Thinking is more abstract and logical Idealistic Involves comparing how things are to how they might be Hypothetical-deductive reasoning Developing hypotheses about ways to solve a problem

28 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 28 Evaluating and Expanding on Piaget’s Theory Vygotsky’s cognitive development in cultural context Recognized that cognitive development is an interpersonal process that happens in a cultural context Interactions with others provide scaffolding

29 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 29 Cognitive Processes in Adulthood Cognition in middle adulthood Crystallized intelligence Individual’s accumulated information and verbal skills Fluid intelligence Ability to reason abstractly Cognition in late adulthood Number of dimensions of intelligence decline in late adulthood Some are maintained or may even increase, such as wisdom

30 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 30 Socioemotional Development Socioemotional processes Involve changes in an individual’s social relationships, emotional life, and personal qualities

31 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 31 Socioemotional Development in Infancy Ingredients of emotional and social processes that are present very early in life Temperament Refers to an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic ways of responding Easy, Slow-to-Warm-Up Difficult

32 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 32 Socioemotional Development in Infancy Attachment Close emotional bond between an infant and his or her caregiver Development of Attachment Behaviorists Food Harry Harlow’s Monkeys Contact Comfort John Bowlby Predisposed

33 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 33 Socioemotional Development in Infancy Measurement of Attachment Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Secure Insecure – Anxious Avoidant Insecure – Anxious Ambivalent

34 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 34 Erikson’s Eight Stages

35 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 35 Erikson’s Eight Stages Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Integrity vs. Despair

36 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 36 Evaluating Erikson’s Theory Attempt to capture each stage with a single concept leaves out other important developmental tasks Main task for young adults Resolve the conflict between intimacy and isolation Another significant developmental task in early adulthood involves careers and work

37 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 37 Parenting and Childhood Socioemotional Development Authoritarian parenting Strict punitive style Authoritative parenting Encourages the child to be independent but still places limits and controls on behavior Neglectful parenting Distinguished by a lack of parental involvement in the child’s life Permissive parenting Places few limits on the child’s behavior

38 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 38 Gender Development Gender Refers to the broad set of characteristics of people as males and females Biology and gender development Humans normally have 46 chromosomes arranged in pairs 23rd pair may have: Two X-shaped chromosomes, which produces a female Both an X-shaped and an (upside-down) Y-shaped chromosome, which produces a male

39 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 39 Cognitive Aspects of Gender Development Gender schema Mental framework for understanding what it means to be male or female in one’s culture Children acquire schemas through learning in the social world

40 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 40 Socioemotional Experience and Gender Development Social experience influence gender development Gender roles Involve expectations for how females and males should think, act, and fee Represent beliefs about appropriate behavior for the sexes Gender similarities hypothesis Idea that men and women are much more similar than they are different

41 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 41 Moral development Changes that occur with age in people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding the principles and values that guide them

42 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 42 Kohlberg’s Theory Preconventional level Based on consequences of a behavior and on punishments or rewards from external world Conventional level Abiding by parental or societal standards Postconventional level Recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then develops an increasingly personal moral code

43 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 43 Critics of Kohlberg View does not adequately reflect concern for other people and social bonds Justice perspective theory of Kohlberg Focuses on rights of individual Independent moral decisions Care perspective theory by Gilligan Views people in terms of connectedness to others Interpersonal communication


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