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Benchmark 2 Study Guide Answers

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1 Benchmark 2 Study Guide Answers

2 1. Reconstruction was the period after the Civil War, when the country was rebuilding.  
2. After the Civil War, the 13th Amendment abolished slavery. The slaves needed help getting food, supplies, and education; so, the Freedman’s Bureau was developed. It helped to build schools for former slaves. Jim Crow Laws – prevented African Americans from voting in 3 ways: 1. Poll Tax 2. Literacy Tests 3. Grandfather Clause African Americans LOST rights; segregation was enforced!!! Segregation was when blacks and whites were separated; they could not use the same restrooms, stores, or even water fountains.   Black Codes– prevented African Americans from voting, traveling, and owning property   Ratify – to agree to something and make it a law   Amendment – a change or addition to the U.S. Constitution  Checks & Balances – a system that gives each branch of government a balance of power *Why? So no branch of government can overrule the other; it prevents any branch from becoming too powerful.

3 Why was sharecropping used?
Sharecropping – a system that allowed a land owner to lease his land to several farmers; the landowner gave the farmers tools and seeds to plant; at the end of the season the farmer would give the land owner part of the crops to pay back what he owed; most sharecropping involved a white land owner who leased part of his land to former slaves. Why was sharecropping used? Because the land owners did not have money to pay the former slaves for their work; and, the former slaves did not have money to lease the land. Why did the Southern Economy suffer after the Civil War? It suffered because it depended on slaves to work. The slaves were free labor. Without slaves, the land owners had to pay workers a salary. Paying their employees reduced the amount of profit they earned. This meant that everyone earned less money so they had less money to spend in the economy. (Domino Effect)

4 Key Amendments- 13th Amendment- abolished slavery forever, it meant they were REQUIRED to set all the slaves FREE 14th Amendment- gave citizenship to any person born in the United States (former slaves became citizens) 15th Amendment- gave all citizens the right to vote despite their race; so…white and black men could vote; women could NOT vote 19th Amendment- gave all citizens the right to vote despite their gender; women can vote! 23rd Amendment- granted 3 electoral votes to Washington D.C.; it allowed the people in Washington D.C. to vote 24th Amendment- abolished the poll tax 26th Amendment- set voting age; must be 18 to vote ****Name the five amendments that protect our voting rights: 15th 19th , 23rd, 24th, and the 26th Due Process – a legal system that guarantees all citizens are treated fairly; protects your rights as a citizen of the United States

5 How do we amend the Constitution?
The 4 step - Amendment Process: Step 1: Congress proposes a new amendment. 2/3 of the House of Representatives and 2/3 of the Senate must pass the bill Step 2: The proposed amendment is sent to the STATES (It must be sent to the states before the legislatures can choose and the legislatures must choose before 3/4 of the states can ratify) Step 3: State Legislatures choose to ratify or reject the amendment Step 4: 3/4 of the states must ratify the amendment so it can be added to the Constitution Why do so many people have to vote for an amendment to be made? So that small groups of people cannot make changes that most people do not want; must have majority of votes to be passed; the majority rules! What are some of the ways Due Process of law protects your rights? The laws must be written clearly so people can understand them. A person must be told what they are being charged with. A person has the right to a fair and speedy trial by a jury of their peers People have the right to speak at their own trial and defend themselves. A person cannot be made to incriminate themselves or tell things that prove they’re guilty.

6 Government-the part that controls taxes; they decide how much to raise or lower taxes; the government uses the money from taxes to fund our military, public schools, and relief programs Banks-Businesses that specialize in loaning money; Banks loan people money to buy things that people could not normally afford. People may have some of the money but need help buying big things like houses or cars. Private Business- a business NOT controlled by the government; they can be big or small; they produce goods and/or services that consumers buy; they sell products to make a profit Households- involves families; a group of people who usually live together that share in the financial responsibilities

7 1. A person who leaves their native country and moves to another country is called, and immigrant.
2. More than 12 million immigrants came to the US between the years **The reasons why people leave their native country are called the “PUSH” factors. These are the things that are pushing them away from their homeland. Some examples of these are: poverty, starvation, and disease. ** The reasons why people want to go to a new country, things that pull them in and get them interested are called “PULL” factors. Some examples of these are: religious freedoms, adventure, hope for better opportunity 4. How did these immigrants affect the United States? They spoke different languages; they practiced different religions, and had different customs. 5. The population in larger cities like New York grew a lot! Mostly European immigrants settled in the North to work in factories.

8 6. Asian immigrants came to America through San Francisco, California
6. Asian immigrants came to America through San Francisco, California. A lot of immigrants from China settled in the West and worked in restaurants, in mining camps, and helped build the railroads. 7. The Northern economy relied heavily on factories and industrial type businesses. The large population of immigrants provided an increase in labor that led to an increase in products/profit for factories. 8. After winning the Spanish American War, the U.S. gained control of 3 colonies. What 3 colonies? A. Guam B. Puerto Rico C. Philippines 9. When the USS Maine exploded in a Cuban harbor, America blamed Spain and declared war. This is what led to the beginning of the Spanish American War. 10. The Panama Canal increased trade between America and other countries. It connected the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

9 11. Wright Brothers- Developed the first successful airplane
11. Wright Brothers- Developed the first successful airplane. Their first flight lasted only 12 seconds; but without this first flight we couldn’t have the 2nd or 100. Contribution: They made travel by flying possible. Flying was much faster. The military also used planes during the war. 12. George Washington Carver- Invented the Crop Rotation Method. He developed over 100 used for peanuts including peanut butter. Contribution: Farmers learned to rotate crops and protect the soil’s nutrients. 13. Alexander Graham Bell- He invented the microphone and the telephone. He was interested in the deaf and hard of hearing. Contribution: We can now communicate over long distances instantly. 14. Thomas Edison: He invented the motion picture camera and the phonograph. His most beneficial invention was the electric light bulb. He has the first Central Power Company. Contribution: Factories could stay open longer and work and night. Owners were grateful for the light bulb because they could see in the dark.

10 15. William McKinley- He was the president during the Spanish American war. He wanted to expand America’s role as a “power house”. Contribution: America’s win over Spain proved that America’s military was superior. 16. Theodore Roosevelt: He became the President in He was the leader of the military group named the Rough Riders. Contribution: He increased trade between America and other countries by building the Panama Canal. It connected the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and decrease travel time for ships carrying goods. 17. Black Cowboys- This group of African American men raised and drove cattle along the cattle trails out west. Contribution: they helped supply the Eastern U.S. with beef. When the railroads were expanded, and more train stations were built in the west, the need for cowboys and long cattle drives ended. 18. Cattle Trails- Most cattle trails began in Texas, ran North through Oklahoma, and into Kansas. They were long paths that black cowboys used to drive cattle to the nearest train station where the cows were shipped East. *Chisholm Trail- Began in Texas * Great Western Cattle Trail- Began in Texas and ended in Dakota Territories.

11 19. Specialization- when someone works in only one area; they become and expert. 20. Producer- a person who SELLS goods and services. 21. income- the money you make; the money your employer pays you. 22. Good- something you can hold in your hand; you can touch it. 23. Market- the buying and selling of goods and/or services. 24. Competition- when two stores fight for people’s business; can lead to lower prices. 25. Labor- the work a person does. 26. Consumers- a person who BUYS goods and services. 27. Services- something someone does for someone else; an action they perform. 28. Price- the amount of money a seller charges for a product.

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