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Voc#1: Motors and Generators 1. interaction of current-carrying wire and a magnetic field 2. galvanometer 3. how a galvanometer works 4. electric motor.

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Presentation on theme: "Voc#1: Motors and Generators 1. interaction of current-carrying wire and a magnetic field 2. galvanometer 3. how a galvanometer works 4. electric motor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Voc#1: Motors and Generators 1. interaction of current-carrying wire and a magnetic field 2. galvanometer 3. how a galvanometer works 4. electric motor 5. function of an electric motor 6. commutator 7. brushes (electric motor) 8. armature 9. electromagnetic induction ways to induce current 11. alternating current 12. direct current 13. electric generator 14. AC generator 15. slip rings 16. DC generator 17. turbine Voc#2: Electrical Energy & Power 18. coal 19. oil 20. gas 21. nuclear 22. geothermal energy 23. solar energy 24. hydroelectric 25. wind energy 26. tidal energy 27. renewable resource 28 name 5 renewable resources 29 nonrenewable resource 30 3 nonrenewable resources 31. electric power 32. unit of electric power 33. power rating 34. equation for electric power 35. equation for watts 36. electric energy 37. equation for electric energy 38. usual unit for electric energy Voc#3: Transformers & Batteries 39. transformer 40. primary coil 41. secondary coil 42. step-up transformer 43. step-down transformer 44. Thomas Edison 45. Nikola Telsa 46. advantage of AC for power transmission 47. George Westinghouse 48. battery 49. Luigi Galvani 50. Alessandro Volta 51. electrochemical cell 52. electrolyte 53. electrodes 54. battery terminal 55. wet cell 56. dry cell 57. rechargeable battery 58. Ni-Cad batteries 59. NI-MH batteries 60 lithium-ion batteries

2 CONVERTING ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO MECHANICAL ENERGY  CURRENT-CARING WIRE IN MAGNETIC FIELD CONVERTS ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO MECHANICAL ENERGY  GALVANOMETER: MEASURES TINY MAGNETIC FIELDS WIRE LOOPS ATTACHED TO NEEDLE HELD BETWEEN MAGNETIC FIELDS STRONGER CURRENTS CAUSE LARGER MOVEMENTS OF THE NEEDLE  ELECTRIC MOTORS: USES ELECTRICITY TO TURN AN AXLE MADE OF WIRE LOOPS BETWEEN MAGNETS, COMMUTATOR, BRUSHES COMMUTATOR REVERSES DC CURRENT DIRECTION & MAGNETIC FIELD BRUSHES: APPLY ELECTRICITY TO COMMUTATOR OF MOTOR ARMATURE: HUNDREDS OF WIRE LOOPS ON AN IRON CORE 1

3 GENERATORS: CHANGE MECHANICAL ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY  CURRENT MADE WHEN A CONDUCTOR MOVES ACROSS MAGNETIC FIELD ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION: PROCESS OF GENERATING ELECTRIC CURRENT FROM THE MOTION OF A CONDUCTOR IN A MAGNETIC FIELD  ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC): CURRENT IN WIRE REVERSES DIRECTION  DIRECT CURRENT (DC): CURRENT FLOWS ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION SLIP RINGS CONTINUALLY REVERSE CURRENT DIRECTION DC GENERATORS: USES COMMUTATOR, RESEMBLES A MOTOR TURBINES: A CIRCULAR, BLADED DEVICE ROTATED BY A MOVING FLUID  MAY USE WATER, WIND, STEAM, OCEAN CURRENTS  TURBINES OFTEN USED TO TURN GENERATORS, MAKE ELECTRICITY 2

4 COMMON SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY  COAL: PLENTIFUL RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE, NON-RENEWABLE FOSSIL FUEL, BURNED TO MAKE STEAM, STEAM TURNS ELECTRIC TURBINE CAUSES GREENHOUSE GASE CARBON DIOXIDE, AIR POLLUTION  OIL: LESS ABUNDANT NON-RENEWABLE FOSSIL FUEL, BURNED TO MAKE STEAM STEAM TURNS ELECTRIC TURBINE, CAUSES GREENHOUSE GASES USED FOR GAS, DESIEL, BECOMING INCREASINGLY EXPRENSIVE  NATURAL GAS: LESS ABUNDANT NON-RENEWABLE FOSSIL FUEL BURNED TO MAKE STEAM, STEAM TURNS ELECTRIC TURBINES INCREASINGLY EXPENSIBVE, CAUSES GREENHOUSE GASE CARBON DIOXIDE 3

5 COMMON ENERGY SOURCES continued  NUCLEAR : NON-RENEWABLE,NUCLEAR REACTION’S HEAT PRODUCES STEAM STEAM TURBINE PRODUCES ELECTRICITY NO GREENHOUSE GASES, BUT NUCLEAR WASTE IS A SERIOUS PROBLEM  HYDROELECTRIC: CLEAN, LOW COST, NONPOLLUTING, NO GREENHOUSE GASES WATER TURNS TURBINES DIRECTLY RENEWABLE, BUT LIMITED TO SPECIFIC BODIES OF WATER  TIDES: CLEAN BUT UNCOMMON,TURNS TURBINES DIRECTLY NO GREENHOUSE GASES PRODUCED RENEWABLE, BUT CAN ONLY BE BUILD IN VERY LIMITED SHORE AREAS 4

6 COMMON ENERGY SOURCES continued  WIND: RENEWABLE, CLEAN, LOW COST, NON-POLLUTING WIND TURNS ELECTRIC TURBINE DIRECTLY LIMITED TO AREAS OF HIGH, CONSISTENT WINDS  SOLAR: CLEAN, UNLIMITED, RENEWABLE PHOTO-ELECTRIC REACTION PRODUCES ELECTRICITY EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE, TECHNOLOGY STILL BEING DEVELOPED CONFINED TO AREAS OF STRONG, CONSISTENT SUNLIGHT  GEOTHERMAL: MODERATE COSTS, NON-POLLUTING HEAT CHANNELED FROM VOLCANIC AREAS TO TURN STEAM TURBINES CONFINED TO VERY LIMITED SITES 5

7  RENEWABLE RESOURCES: NOT FIXED, REPLACEABLE RESOURCES  NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES: FIXED, DIMINISHING RESOURCES  ELECTRIC POWER: RATE THAT ELECTRIC ENERGY CHANGES TO ANOTHER FORM EQUATION: POWER = VOLTAGE x CURRENT (P = V x I) UNIT: WATTS(W), WATTS = VOLTS TIMES AMPS  ELECTRIC ENERGY: THE AMOUNT OF POWER USED TIMES TIME ENERGY EQUATION : E = P x T (KILOWATT-HOURS = KILOWATTS x HOURS) UNIT USED BY THE ELECTRIC COMPANY TO MEASURE ELECTRICITY USED 6

8 TRANSFORMERS: DEVICE WHICH INCREASES OR DECREASES VOLTAGE.  GENERAL STRUCTURE: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY COILS PRIMARY COIL: CONNECTED TO INCOMING CURRENT SECONDARY COIL: CONNECTED TO OUTGOING CURRENT SOFT IRON CORE: TRANSFERS CURRENT TO SECONDARY BY INDUCTION  STEP-UP TRANSFORMER: INCREASES VOLTAGE, MORE COILS IN SECONDARY  STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMER: LOWERS VOLTAGE, HAS FEWER COILS IN SECONDARY COIL 7

9 PIONEERS IN ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY  EDISON ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY: 1ST TO SUPPLY ELECTRICITY SUPPLIED 120v DC, MUCH LOST DUE TO POWER LINE RESISTANCE EDISON’S GENERATING PLANTS HAD TO BE SMALL, CLOSE TOGETHER EDISON LATER HAD TO CHANGE TO AC: TODAY HIS COMPANY IS G.E.  NIKOLA TELSA: USED AC CURRENT, HIGH VOLTAGE AND TRANSFORMERS MUCH MORE EFFICIENT IN CONDUCTING ELECTRICITY MADE 1ST HYDRO-ELECTRIC PLANT AT NIAGARA FALLS 8

10 ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS: CHANGE CHEMICAL ENERGY TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY  VOLTAIC CELL: HAS 2 ELECTRODES AND AN ELECTROLYTE ELECTRODE: A METAL STRIP WHICH COLLECTS OR GIVES AWAY ELECTRONS SILVER, COPPER COLLECT ELECTRONS ; ZINC & ALUMINUM RELEASE THEM TERMINALS: THE CONNECTION POINT TO THE ELECTRODES ELECTROLYTE: A CHEMICAL WHICH PULLS ELECTRONS FROM ONE ELECTRODE AND MOVES THEM TO THE OTHER  FIRST DEVELOPED BY ALESSANDRO VOLTA IN EARLY 1800’S 9

11 IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN ITS DEVELOPMENT  LUIGI GALVANI EXPERIMENTED ANIMAL TISSUE (late 1700’S) APPLIED ELECTRIC CURRENT TO FROGS’ LEGS DISEMBODIED FROGS’ LEGS MOVED IN RESPONSE INSPIRED THE FRANKENSTEIN BY MARY SHELLY  ALESSANDRO VOLTA MADE FIRST WET CELL BASED ON GALVANI’S WORK WITH ELECTRICITY WET CELL BASED ON REACTIONS BETWEEN FLUIDS, METALS 10

12 BATTERY: A COMBINATION OF TWO OR MORE ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS  WET CELL: USE LIQUID ELECTROLYTES (SULFURIC OR HYDROCHLORIC ACID) ELECTRONS FLOW FROM NEGATIVE ELECTRODE TO POSITIVE CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITH ELECTROLYTE CAUSES ELECTRONS TO MOVE  DRY CELL: USES A PASTE-LIKE ELECTROLYTE  DEAD CELL: REACTANTS HAVE ALL BEEN CHANGED, STOP REACTING  REACTANTS: ACTIVE PART OF ELECTROLYTE, TRANSFERS ELECTRONS  RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES: CAN REGAIN ENERGY BY APPLYING ENERGY ENERGY APPLIED IN REVERSE DIRECTION ENERGY RE-ENERGIZES REACTANTS EXAMPLES INCLUDE NICKLE-HYDROXIDE, NICKLE-CADIUM, LITHIUM 11

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