2What is energy?What is energy? A. The ability to move an object over a distance. B. The ability to do work Law of Conservation of Energy?
3Types of Energy Chemical Stored Mechanical Mechanical Gravitational PotentialKineticNuclearRadiantThermalElectricalSound
4How can we manufacture energy? Fossil FuelsBiomassSolarHydroelectricWindGeothermalNuclearRenewable resources are materials that can be replaced through natural and/or human processes.Nonrenewable resources exist in fixed amounts within the earth and once they’re used up, they’re gone forever or it takes the earth an extreme amount of time to make them.
5Fossil Fuels Coal, Petrol, Natural Gas Formed during the CARBONIFEROUS period, organisms (like algae/zooplankton) exposed to heat and pressure- but not airCoal- MineNatural Gas- Frack (drill, pump in water solution, capture escaping gas from shale, repeat)Petroleum/ Crude Oil- Drill and refine into different combinations of hydrocarbons
6BiomassEnergy derived by processing once living things, most often collected, burned to heat directly or to heat water and turn a turbine for electricityBiodiesel/ ethanol- Corn and algaePetrol- algaeMethane- manureDirect Fuel- wood/ plant matter (burning)
7Solar Photo- photons- light to make energy (DC current) Thermal- heat, Photovoltaic and ThermalPhoto- photons- light tomake energy (DC current)Thermal- heat,Water is heated andEnergy is transferred toheat other water sources
8Hydroelectric, Wind, Geothermal Why did I place these all together… TURBINES!Water, air or steam move the blades of the turbine and generate the charge needed for electricityA turbine takes motion (mechanical energy) and generates it into electricity.It a GENERATOR (which we will discuss again later)
9Nuclear This involves steam rotating turbines but HOW? Core or radioactive substance (usually Uranium), immersed into pools of waterUndergoes the process of fission, atom decays into “smaller elements”During this process, energy in the form of heat is released and creates steam which turns a steam turbineThese are in pressurized systems and can be activated or cooled off. If it can not be cooled off properly = “meltdown”
11Units for energy and electricity joule (J) -The SI unit of energy (work) .1kg ·m2 /s2What else is a joule?
12Units for Electricity Joules are also… *Work necessary to move an electric charge of one coulomb through a voltCoulomb- SI unit of Electric charge, one amp in one sec (C or a * s)Volt- electric potential energy between 2 points, “difference” (V)*Work required to produce one watt of power for one secWatt- SI unit for power, J/s, power is the rate of doing work (W)KwH- kilowatt hours1 kilowatt hour = 3.6×106 J (or 3.6 MJ)
13AmpereAmp- The amount of electric charge passing specific point in an electric circuit per second The measure of rate of flow of electrons. I can change this by- -increasing the number of charged particles -the charge on the particles -the speed at which the particles are moving past a specified point 1A= C/S
14Ohm’s The ohm (Ω) is the SI unit of resistance Ohm’s Law- a current through a conductive material between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference (volt).Current (I) = Voltage ResistanceCurrent- represented by Ior A (in amps)WRITE THIS DOWN!!
15Practice ProblemsIn a circuit there is a 0.5 A current in the bulb. The voltage across the bulb is 4.0 V. What is the bulb’s resistance?A waffle iron has a 12 A current. If the resistance of the coils is 10 Ω, what must the voltage be
16Tools to measure Multimeter Voltmeter Galvanometer, an instrument used to indicate the presence, direction, or strength of a small electric current through movements of a magnetic needle in a magnetic field
17What is Electricity? Electricity is the movement of electrons, flows from a negative charge to a positiveStatic stays in one place, is created when an object gives up or gains electrons, moves from one surface to anotherRubbing an inflated balloon on clothing or rubbing your shoes on carpeting forms static electricity. Lightning is also static!Electrical is a flow of electric charge, often carried by moving electrons in a wire.(It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and electrons in a plasma)
18Transferring Charges: Friction: the transfer of electrons from one uncharged object to another by rubbing Conduction: the transfer of electrons from a charged object to another by direct contact Induction: creating voltage in a conductor when exposed to a magnetic force
19Conductors and Insulators Material from which the wire is made.Insulators = high resistanceGlass, Plastic WoodConductors = low resistanceMetals (copper, silver), ionized solutionsLength, diameter and temperature can affect resistance
20Magnets and Electromagnets Magnet- material which has a field which attracts other magnetic objects- ferrous materials A magnet produced by an electric field is called an electromagnet. A coil of wire with a current is called a solenoid. OPPOSITES ATTRACT!
213 characteristics of a magnetic field produced by a current: 1. The magnetic field can be turned on or off How? Turn the current off 2. The magnetic field can have its direction changed How? Reverse the direction of the current 3. The field can have its strength change How? By winding a wire with a current into loops, you strengthen the magnetic field in the center of the coil.
22An electric current is induced (or caused) in a conductor when it moves through a magnetic field. This is called electromagnetic induction.In an induced current, charges may flow in one direction or may alternate (go back and forth). DC (direct current) go in one direction. AC (alternating current) go back and forth.
23AC current (alternating current) is used in homes, schools and other buildings because it can be “stepped down” for safer use. Anything with an “outlet/plug”DC current (direct current) is used in batteries and anything battery-powered.
24Motors vs. GeneratorsWhen electromagnets move a rod or axle (which move something like the blades of a blender) this is called an electric motor.A device that transforms mechanical energy into electrical energy is called a generator.A generator use motion in a magnetic field to produce an electric current.
25Notice:An electric motor is a device for transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy; an electric generator does the reverse. It converts mechanical energy into electricity.
26A transformer is a device that increases or decreases voltage A transformer is a device that increases or decreases voltage. A transformer takes in electricity at a higher voltage and runs it through a wire with fewer coils. Having fewer coils means less voltage. So the voltage is "stepped-down.“