Presentation on theme: "Jobs for the Future Harvard Graduate School of Education Institute November, 2013 Columbus, Ohio THE PATHWAYS TO PROSPERITY STATE NETWORK: DOCUMENTS."— Presentation transcript:
Jobs for the Future Harvard Graduate School of Education Institute November, 2013 Columbus, Ohio THE PATHWAYS TO PROSPERITY STATE NETWORK: DOCUMENTS COMPENDIUM
KEY IMPLEMENTATION LEVERS FOR A BETTER SYSTEM: PATHWAYS TO PROSPERITY FRAMEWORK Grades 9-14 Pathways in high demand career areas Engaged employers offering WBL and internships Intermediary links between education and employers Early, sustained career counseling and information Committed national & state leaders create favorable policy environment
CHALLENGES TO SYSTEMS BUILDING Early Career Advising –Most districts lack a systemic strategy to introduce young people to the world of careers beginning in middle grades 9-14 Pathways –Few 9-14 pathways align and integrate high school career pathways with community college –Community colleges’ “high demand” career programs are not accessible to young entrants, thus integrated 9-14 programs of study must be built 5
CHALLENGES TO SYSTEMS BUILDING (continued) Intermediaries –Communities lack organizations to serve as the “glue” between schools, colleges and employer; to convene, muster resources, align with educations with labor market. Chambers, sector organizations need to step up Employer Engagement –Employers are not interested in general “please engage with schools” requests; need to build a talent pipeline of young professionals in specific career areas; sometimes have a dim view of adolescents’ skills and seriousness about learning. 6
CAREER AREAS OF FOCUS AND GREATEST PIPELINE DEVELOPMENT NEED Advanced Manufacturing Few know the opportunities and salaries, stigma attached Allied Health Growing field, career paths must be carefully chosen Information Technology Cross-cutting and key to all 21 st century careers, not just in IT fields business Logistics transport ation, distributi on
HEADLINES FROM THE FIRST YEAR Illinois launched Pathways” as the State’s premiere STEM education initiative with 7 new public-private partnerships known as STEM Learning Exchanges. Hampden County, MA developed an advanced manufacturing exploratory course for 9 th graders in partnership with Springfield Technical Community College for West Springfield High School. Governor Patrick established the Career Pathways Committee as part of the Massachusetts State Workforce Investment. Three St. Louis area school districts were awarded $1.3 million in grant funds from Governor Nixon to establish Innovation High Schools partnered with local businesses and the St. Louis Community College to provide opportunities for students to earn college credit and gain hands-on experience.
HEADLINES FROM THE FIRST YEAR (continued) Upper Cumberland and Southeast Tennessee have launched regional Pathways initiatives with NEW career pathways open in spring and fall Perkins Reserve grants are supporting the development of pathways in schools and non-competitive grants to support intermediaries. California has launched a Linked Learning Pilot Program with 63 school districts organized into 20 consortia. Budgeted $250 million in state dollars for a Career Pathways Trust Fund to invest in regional collaboratives to support work-based learning aligned with regional economic priorities. New York is funding 16 new P-TECH high schools with grants of $400,000 for seven years for a total of $28 million.
For more information, contact: Nancy Hoffman , ext. 132 Amy Loyd , ext. 282 Bob Schwartz
JOBS FOR THE FUTURE HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION INSTITUTE NOVEMBER 6, 2013, COLUMBUS, OHIO NANCY HOFFMAN AND JOEL VARGAS DUAL ENROLLMENT POLICY: EFFECTIVE STATE DESIGNS
DUAL ENROLLMENT: OVERVIEW Dual enrollment has come to be accepted as an on ramp to college for a wide range of students Some states have made DE a pillar of their high school and college completion agenda Dual enrollment is compatible with the trend toward competency- based acceleration Biggest challenge is financing: (key factors: ADA, FTE, tuition, books, transportation) NOTE: Important to take long view of cost savings through acceleration and higher productivity of the work force with greater number of AA and BA recipients.
IES STUDY : CTE AND DUAL ENROLLMENT About half of all high schools reported that students took dual credit courses with a CTE focus High schools reported 601,500 enrollments for dual credit courses with a CTE focus About one third of all high schools stated that students took dual credit CTE courses on site at their secondary school 93 percent of schools with enrollments in CTE dual credit courses stated that students were awarded postsecondary credit immediately upon completion of courses
OHIO POSTSECONDARY OPTIONS Challenges –Few incentives for high schools to participate –Funding structure puts burden on schools –Too much discretion to districts and colleges, thus uneven implementation Strengths –All students must be informed of opportunity –Eligibility to enroll based on grades in prior high school course, not GPA overall –CT 2 A great opportunity today to: –fine tune and make available to a wide range of students –provide cost effective financing What can OHIO learn from other states to enhance its long standing commitment?
JFF MODEL STATES Colorado: 5 th year of high school to complete up to an AA degree; hold harmless funding; Concurrent Enrollment Programs Act, 20,000++ students Advanced Credit Pathways (ACP) for CTE. Legislation worth a look. See Enrollment Programs Act New Mexico: New Mexico Dual Credit Program Dual Credit Council, ,000 students; hold harmless funding, schools reimbursed for texts. No special CTE program.
JFF MODEL STATES (continued) Texas: all schools must provide opportunity to earn 12 credits; 90,000++ students, ADA/FTE provided, tuition may be waived. Free to students. May include advanced technical courses. New CTE rules encourage dual enrollment to meet regional labor market credentialing needs. (See HB 5 summary.pdf) Utah: hold harmless funding reimburses school up to 30 credits per year; 27,000 in ‘ Single IT system, registration on line. Encourages CTE which accounts for largest # of credits generated. Rules worth a look.
INNOVATIONS IN DE NC: College and Career Promise. Aligns HS and com college courses and requires approval of pathways at community college system level. TN, GA: Use of state financial aid, NY under discussion DE tied to postsecondary performance based funding strategies in LA, IN, TN, TX. Ramp up/ramp down of CTE graduation requirements > > implications for dual enrollment –LA: revamping CTE through regional consortia –CA: certifying programs (PLTW)
JOBS FOR THE FUTURE HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION INSTITUTE NOVEMBER 6, 2013, COLUMBUS, OHIO NANCY HOFFMAN AND JOEL VARGAS MY BEST BETS: USING “REAL TIME” LABOR MARKET DATA
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED Understanding the local labor market can help to identify a range of potential postsecondary pathways—and even align aspects of CTE/dual enrollment programming. Data is not always easy to find and interpret; language is not always clear Some of the most important occupational information (e.g., median wage, most common level of education/training, job openings) is spread out across a number of disparate databases The data may not always reflect the reality on the ground The process can feel overwhelming Localized Labor Market Analysis Analysis of Employer Interviews Postsecondary Program Analysis
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED Given that, we narrow in on a first set of occupations to explore, aggregating various data sources and using some simple sorts of data. For example: Localized Labor Market Analysis Analysis of Employer Interviews Postsecondary Program Analysis Typically requires less than a bachelor’s degree to gain access Exclude jobs like supervisors, managers, and sales reps Hourly wages at or above the regional median High employment in the region Employers that are hiring Job openings Growth
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED We provide organizations with profiles and databases of their regional labor markets, offering an initial snapshot of in-demand occupations. Localized Labor Market Analysis Analysis of Employer Interviews Postsecondary Program Analysis
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED SOURCE: Texas ABE-IG PPT presentation on Labor Market Application, Jobs for the Future; Innovations in Labor Market Information and their Application; An Introduction to Skills Transferability, Jobs for the Future, 2012.
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED Used together, traditional and real-time labor market information can help you and your students to: Better understand your local labor market—its past and current trends and likely future trends Get a sense of occupational wages in your region and collect more detailed and up-to-date information on employer demand in your region (e.g., the education levels, industry certifications, and skills they typically require for certain jobs) Identify and speak in more detail with employers in your region that can provide a range of work-based learning opportunities for your students Gather information on new and emerging occupations in your local labor market Understanding your local labor market can help to better align advising and instruction to economic trends in your region— BUT local labor market data is not the end of the story.
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED We look to employers and other workforce partners to fill in the blanks. Localized Labor Market Analysis Analysis of Employer Interviews Postsecondary Program Analysis Education, Training, and/or Work Experience Job Openings Growth Wages Find out about benefits (e.g., health insurance, tuition remission, retirement plans, long-term disability insurance)—students need to know about the value of these incentives Wage gains associated with career advancement Growth does not always mean job opportunity, and projected declines may still yield high numbers of quality jobs Occupations with projected declines may still have numerous job openings due to people leaving jobs for various reasons (replacement jobs) Contact employers and workforce development organizations to find out if occupations really have job openings in your region The level of education/training required for jobs may differ by region and employer Major economic events (e.g., a recession) can affect the education/training/work experience employers require/prefer when hiring
IDENTIFYING BEST BETS: STRATEGIES TO GET STARTED Employers can provide valuable information about the professional and technical skills they are looking for—as well as current and anticipated demand. For example: Localized Labor Market Analysis Analysis of Employer Interviews Postsecondary Program Analysis Demand and recruitment: What jobs are currently in demand, and what is their short-term and long-term outlook? What are the preferred credentials and skills needed to access those jobs? How are employers recruiting for jobs, and what qualities/skills/experiences distinguish successful candidates from others? Job characteristics: What are typical working and lifestyle considerations for the job? Why type of personalities would/would not be a good fit? Postsecondary connections: Who typically trains and supplies your job candidates? Do you offer further education/training opportunities? Career advancement opportunities: Can/do employees advance in the organization? Are there well-defined career ladders—if so, what do they look like?
JOBS FOR THE FUTURE HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION INSTITUTE NOVEMBER 6, 2013, COLUMBUS, OHIO NANCY HOFFMAN AND JOEL VARGAS ALLIED HEALTH EXAMPLES
WHY HEALTH CARE? STRENGTHS OF THE SECTOR Strong demand in many areas Variety of occupational pathways and subfields Multiple entry and exit points, ladders and lattices Well-defined subfields and credentials in many cases Good wages for sub-BA jobs Attention due to public policy (Affordable Care Act) CHALLENGES OF THE SECTOR Some high demand jobs (i.e. home health care) lack ladders Education and licensing requirements create steep hurdles; “credential creep” Scope of practice restrictions Lack of articulation and alignment within education and industry at many points Uncertain demand picture (for jobs and skills) due to ACA
PROJECTED JOB GROWTH: SUB-BA POSITIONS
PIPELINE PROGRAMS RN to BSN MLT to Med Tech Research Administrator RN Med Lab Tech Surgical Tech Patient Care Tech Registration Specialist Pharmacy TechMedical Coder Bachelors Degree or higher College Certificate Or Associate Degree Post HS In-house Training
Reading Pre-college Algebra Basic Math Pre-college English Biology Anatomy & Physiology Chemistry Microbiology Required Program Level Pipelines Histotech Med Lab Tech Surgical Technologist NursingRad Tech Nuc Med Tech Respiratory Therapy Other
West Aurora High School West Aurora SD #129 LuAnne Kelsey, Dir of Non-Traditional Programming and Resources Health Science Career Academy
West Aurora School District 129: Health Science Academy Course Sequence The Academy is a 3-year integrated program designed to allow students to explore health-related careers while receiving core curriculum in math, science and English
West Aurora School District 129: Health Science Academy Course Sequence Health Science 1... Provides background information on health care Exposes students to various health careers through guest speakers, field trips, and job shadowing Covers history of health care, roles and responsibilities of health care workers, introduction to medical terminology
West Aurora School District 129: Health Science Academy Course Sequence Health Science 2... Continuation of career exploration Development of specific health care and job- related skills Topics include growth and development, nutritional analysis, vital signs, and basic anatomy and physiology
West Aurora School District 129: Health Science Academy Course Sequence Health Science 3... Dual credit options include Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA), Emergency Medical Technician (EMT), Phlebotomy and Massage Therapy Courses include class work, lab work and clinical experiences
West Aurora School District 129: Health Science Academy Course Sequence Mathematics Geometry Algebra 2 College Algebra Technical Geometry Basic Math Skills* Elem Algebra* Inter Algebra* College Math** * Learning Enhancement courses designed to prepare student for Dual Credit math ** Dual Credit Math
West Aurora School District 129: Health Science Academy Course Sequence English Patterns of Literature Junior English 2 Creative Writing Science Biology ChemCom Chemistry Advanced Topics in Medical Science Anatomy
PATHWAYS TO PROSPERITY—BOSTON FOCUS ON HEALTHCARE Grade 11 Grade 10 Grade 12 Grade 9 BHCC Year 1 -Aligned Curricula -Clinical Engagement w/ PATHWAYS HEALTHCA RE EDUCATION PROGRAM Part 1 -Harvard Med. Science Mini Module BHCC Year 2 Aligned Curricula -Clinical Engagement w/ PATHWAYS HEALTHCA RE EDUCATION PROGRAM - PART 2 -Harvard Med. Science Mini Module -Students begin Dual Enrollment courses based on chosen program -CNA -Harvard Med. Science/BIO 108 (Dual Enrollment -Students continue Dual Enrollment courses based on chosen program -STAND Program - NUR095 (Dual Enrollment -Licensed Practical Nurse -Clinical Internship -Mid Level Employment -Registered Nurse -Clinical Internship -High Level Employment
PARTNERS Executive Office of Education (EOE) Jobs for the Future (JFF) Boston Public Schools (BPS) Bunker Hill Community College (BHCC) Boston Private Industry Council (PIC)
COMPLETING PREREQUISITES DEVELOPMENTAL COURSES RDG 090/095 – Reading One & Two ENG 090/095 – Writing Skills One & Two MAT 093 – Foundations of Mathematics NURSING PREREQUISITES ENG 111 – College Writing One MAT 097 – Foundations of Algebra NUR100 – Drug Calculations BIO203/204 – Anatomy/ Physiology w/ Lab One & Two High School Chemistry w/ Lab NHP180 – Medical Terminology (Mandatory for STAND students) Note: Students who place into RDG090/095 must retake the CPT and achieve a score of 10.0 or above to apply for Nursing.
CURRICULUM + ASSESSMENT + INSTRUCTION = CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT Purpose: to reduce the need for students to complete remedial/developmental coursework while in college. ELA Team—Alignment Tools: BHCC ENG095/RDG095 Course Objectives BPS & PARCC Frameworks Accuplacer Content Area & Proficiency Statements Common Core –Team Goal: Students will place into ENG111 to begin Grade 10 (Using holistic reading/writing Exit Exam as an assessment Tool at the end of Grade 9) Math Team—Alignment Tools: BHCC MAT093/097/099/194 Course Objectives BPS & PARCC Frameworks Accuplacer Content Area & Proficiency Statements –Team Goal: Students prepared for College Level Math (Math194) by the second half of grade 10 Using Exit Exam as an assessment Tool at the end of Grade 9)
WORK BASED LEARNING Intermediary: The Boston Private Industry Council will assist in organizing work based opportunities for student participants Clinical Engagement: with PATHWAYS HEALTHCARE EDUCATION PROGRAM Part 1 and 2 Harvard MedScience Program: “… a group of educators at Harvard Medical School worked to devise an intensive, simulator-based curriculum for premedical students.Their curriculum evolved to become a successful and innovative high school science curriculum.” (MedScience.squarespace.com/about) Students will be prepared to enter the workforce on a continuum from internships to entry level positions to professional careers starting in grade 9.
JOBS FOR THE FUTURE HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION INSTITUTE NOVEMBER 6, 2013, COLUMBUS, OHIO NANCY HOFFMAN AND JOEL VARGAS ADVANCED MANUFACTURING EXAMPLES
MASSACHUSETTS CAREER PATHWAY PROJECT ADVANCED MANUFACTURING Cohort of 40, 9th Grade Students Project Steering Committee Dual Enrollment—WSHS Students Taking College Courses at STCC off WSHS Schedule Regional Manufacturing Partnership—Extension of the Classroom Technology Block-Cohort Career Exploration—Group Programs WSHS CAD Laboratory Aligned with MET Design Program Mathematics Pre-Requisite and Accuplacer Waiver Technical Courses Taught at WSHS by STCC Faculty
MASSACHUSETTS CAREER PATHWAY PROJECT ADVANCED MANUFACTURING Professional Development West Springfield H.S.STCC MET Faculty West Springfield and STCC MET Faculty CurriculumDevelopment MA DESE Machine Tool Technolgy Framework U.S. Department of Labor Advanced Manufacturing Competency Model Industry Skills Requirements/Credentials Industry Technical Requirements Credentialing Pathways
JOBS FOR THE FUTURE HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION INSTITUTE NOVEMBER 6, 2013, COLUMBUS, OHIO NANCY HOFFMAN AND JOEL VARGAS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EXAMPLES
BATEC/NISGTC STACKABLE CREDENTIALS Workforce Certificates PC Hardware Support Data Management Mobile App Programming Database Technologies Security+ Health IT Support Computer Forensics Data and Accounting Support Career Certificates Computer Support Specialist Data Management /Storage OO Programming Database Programming CyberSecurity Health IT Specialist Digital Forensics Data Analytics Associates Degrees Networking and Computer Support Data Management and Analytics CS or Technical Programming Database Administration Information Security Health Informatiics Digital Forensics & Investigations Data Analytics/Informatics Bachelor’s Degree (BSIT) Systems Administration Information Systems Computer Science Information Architecture Information Security Assurance Health Analytics/MGT Computer Forensics Business Intelligence credits27-30 credits60+ credits120+ credits
P-TECH: HOW DO STUDENTS LEARN WORKPLACE SKILLS? Year 1: Project Days Year 2: Project Days Year 3: Virtual Enterprise Year 4: Internships Year 5: Internships Year 6: Paid Apprenticeship/Capstone Project Career Awareness Career Preparation Career Application Daily, 45-minute class Overview of IT industry and careers Virtual mentorship from employers Field trips to employers Emphasis on teamwork, time management, presentation, research skills, and goal setting Biweekly, 3-hour team meetings Consulting teams define and solve a STEM problem at school with faculty Mentorship continues Emphasis on team-building, responsibility, understanding how to manage multiple components of a project, and problem definition Daily, 90-minute course In-school entrepreneurship program and global business simulation that replicates all aspects of a real business Project-based curriculum Focus on product development, production& distribution, marketing, sales, human resources, finance and accounting National and international competitions Individual placements at employers Job shadowing, project-based work and onsite problem-solving Dig deeper into workplace culture More intense application of technical skills Encounter different kinds of sites Spend longer and deeper amounts of time at single site Continued support of advisor and mentor Apply to site placements based on technical skill gained from college coursework, GPA, and portfolio assessments Present and defend original project developed during apprenticeship Exhibit mastery of workplace learning and technical skills; polished portfolio
WHAT DOES P-TECH PREPARE STUDENTS TO DO? Students will graduate from P-TECH with an Associate in Applied Science degree in Electromechanical Engineering Technology (EMT) or Computer Information Systems (CIS). As such, they will be valuable contributors to the 21st century world of work, particularly in IT-related fields, and will be able to fill jobs for which there is a shortage of qualified candidates. DegreeRelated jobs students are prepared for Associate in Applied Science (AAS) in Electromechanical Engineering Technology Electrical technicians Electrical engineering technicians Field Engineer Business machines technician Data processing equipment specialist Electromechanical technician Laboratory technician Biomedical instruments service technician Robotics service technician Associate in Applied Science (AAS) in Computer Information System Computer programming Database programming Web programming Systems/network administration and support
WHAT DOES P-TECH PREPARE STUDENTS TO DO? During the P-TECH experience, students achieve early mastery of foundational high school subjects such as Math and English Language Arts, develop general workplace skills and behaviors that are expected of young professionals, and master a set of baseline and specialized college-level technical skills. The skills they acquire from P-TECH include: General Workplace Competencies –MS Office Applications –Communication Skills –Teamwork –Accountability –Problem-Solving –Motivation –Project Management –Adaptation Technical Focus Areas –CST Technical Skills Problem Solving with Computer Programming Operating Systems Fundamentals Programming Fundamentals Database Systems Fundamentals Networking Fundamentals
WHAT DOES P-TECH PREPARE STUDENTS TO DO? (continued) Technical Focus Areas –CST Technical Skills Web Programming I Computer Systems Management and Support Multimedia and Mobile Device Programming Web Programming II Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design System Administration (UNIX/Linux) System Administration (Windows) Digital Media Research and Analysis Technical Writing Creativity Work Readiness Ethics Leadership –EMT Technical Skills Logic and Problem-Solving Technical Graphics Electromechanical Manufacturing Laboratory Electrical Circuits Mechanisms Digital Control Electronics Advanced Mechanisms Computer Hardware Systems Operating Systems Laboratory Data Communications Electromechanical Systems: Software Interface Electromechanical Systems Laboratory
STUDENT SKILLS PROFILE: GENERAL WORKPLACE COMPETENCIES These skills are based on research of foundational workplace competencies and technical skills in the Computer Information Systems (CIS) and Electromechanical Engineering Technology (EMT) fields. SkillDescription MS Office Applications Use a suite of applications (e.g. Microsoft Office) for creating, editing, and sharing text, spreadsheet, presentations and other documents Communication Skills Communicate and work productively with others, incorporating different perspectives and cross-cultural understanding, to increase innovation and the quality of work. AccountabilityDemonstrate productivity and accountability by meeting high expectations. General Problem- Solving Demonstrate critical thinking skills using appropriate tools and resources to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems and make informed decisions. MotivationDemonstrate initiative and self-direction through high achievement and lifelong learning while exploring the ways individual talents and skills can be used for productive outcomes in personal and professional life. Project Management Plan, organize, secure and manage resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. AdaptationAdapt to various roles and responsibilities and work flexibly in climates of ambiguity and changing priorities. Knowledge of Digital Media Use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Research and Analysis Apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Technical WritingAnalyze and create a variety of information types. CreativityDemonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. Work readinessKnow and understand the importance of employability skills, while exploring and planning potential career pathways. EthicsUnderstand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior. LeadershipDemonstrate leadership skills, integrity, ethical behavior, and social responsibility while collaborating to achieve common goals.
STUDENT SKILLS PROFILE: ELECTROMECHANICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY (EMT) PROGRAM Courses students will take as part of the AAS degree program in EMT and a sampling of the skills they will learn within these courses. CoursesSkills Logic and Problem SolvingNumber Systems and Codes Basic Logic Gates Boolean Algebra Android Concepts Tool Skills LabMeasurement & Tools Wiring & Soldering Digital Trainer Construction Container Case: Bottom Digital Trainer Construction Container: Top Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design Manufacture of PCB Final Assembly and Troubleshooting Electrical CircuitsElectrical Quantities and Measurements Ohm's Law & Watt's Law Series and Parallel Circuits Alternating Current Capacitors Inductors Digital ControlDigital Quantities & Functions Logic Gates Logic Gate Combinations Binary Codes & Data Logic Multivibrators Counters Shift Register Programmable Logic Computer Hardware SystemsComputer Hardware Understanding Windows Tech Utilities Expansion Boards Video Multimedia Portable Computing Devices Operating Systems LabWhat is Linux? System Administration Networking and the Internet Setting up a Web Server Intro to Data Communications and Networking Interconnecting the LANs Routing Protocols Network Security Wireless Networking Optical Networking Linux Networking
NANCY HOFFMAN AND JOEL VARGAS TEL FAX Broad Street, 8 th Floor, Boston, MA C Street, NW, Suite 650, Washington, DC
WHAT DOES P-TECH PREPARE STUDENTS TO DO? DEGREE DESCRIPTIONS The Associate in Applied Science (AAS) in Computer Information System (CIS) prepares students for entry level careers in a wide range of computer systems professions. It provides students with a solid foundation in the field of computer systems which enables them to make a seamless transition to the workforce of into Bachelor of Technology in Computer Systems program. This curriculum is well balanced between the technical requirements and the liberal arts requirements. The curriculum also introduces students to the business world. Students are required to complete a semester of accounting and a semester in business management, to provide familiarity with the contexts in which computer systems are commonly used. The Electromechanical Engineering Technology program, the only one of its kind within the CUNY system, was developed in response to the need to prepare competent technicians who had the special skills needed by the computer industry. It is multidisciplinary in nature in that students are taught the fundamentals of electrical and mechanical technology, computer hardware, software, data communications and networking. It prepares students to diagnose and analyze electromechanical problems associated with the development, performance and servicing of computers and computer-based equipment, complex electromechanical industrial equipment and systems, biomedical instrumentation and robotics. Fifty percent of the curriculum is devoted to individualized laboratory instruction using state-of-the-art equipment.